936 research outputs found

### Cross-correlating CMB polarization with local large scale structures

We study heterogeneous quantities that efficiently cross-correlate the
lensing information encoded in CMB polarization and large-scale structures
recovered from weak lensing galaxy surveys. These quantities allow us to take
advantage of the special features of weak lensing effect on CMB B-polarization
and of the high (40%) cross-correlation between the two data sets. We show that
these objects are robust to filtering effects, have a low intrinsic cosmic
variance (around 8% for small 100 square degrees surveys) and can be used as an
original constraint on the vacuum energy density.Comment: 4 pages, use moriond.sty, to appear in the proceedings of the XXXVth
Rencontres de Moriond "Energy densities in the Universe

### Lensing effect on the relative orientation between the Cosmic Microwave Background ellipticities and the distant galaxies

The low redshift structures of the Universe act as lenses in a similar way on
the Cosmic Microwave Background light and on the distant galaxies (say at
redshift about unity). As a consequence, the CMB temperature distortions are
expected to be statistically correlated with the galaxy shear, exhibiting a
non-uniform distribution of the relative angle between the CMB and the galactic
ellipticities. Investigating this effect we find that its amplitude is as high
as a 10% excess of alignement between CMB and the galactic ellipticities
relative to the uniform distribution. The relatively high signal-to-noise ratio
we found should makes possible a detection with the planned CMB data sets,
provided that a galaxy survey follow up can be done on a sufficiently large
area. It would provide a complementary bias-independent constraint on the
cosmological parameters.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures; uses emulateapj.sty; submitted to Ap

### First cosmic shear results from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Wide Synoptic Legacy Survey

We present the first measurements of the weak gravitational lensing signal
induced by the large scale mass distribution from data obtained as part of the
ongoing Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). The data used in
this analysis are from the Wide Synoptic Survey, which aims to image ~170
square degree in five filters. We have analysed ~22 deg2 (31 pointings) of i'
data spread over two of the three survey fields. These data are of excellent
quality and the results bode well for the remainder of the survey: we do not
detect a significant `B'-mode, suggesting that residual systematics are
negligible at the current level of accuracy. Assuming a Cold Dark Matter model
and marginalising over the Hubble parameter h=[0.6,0.8], the source redshift
distribution and systematics, we constrain sigma_8, the amplitude of the matter
power spectrum. At a fiducial matter density Omega_m=0.3 we find
sigma_8=0.85+-0.06. This estimate is in excellent agreement with previous
studies. Combination of our results with those from the Deep component of the
CFHTLS enables us to place a constraint on a constant equation of state for the
dark energy, based on cosmic shear data alone. We find that w_0<-0.8 at 68%
confidence.Comment: Submitted to Ap

### aski: full-sky lensing map-making algorithms

Within the context of upcoming full-sky lensing surveys, the edge-preserving non-linear algorithm aski (All-Sky Îș Inversion) is presented. Using the framework of Maximum A Posteriori inversion, it aims at recovering the optimal full-sky convergence map from noisy surveys with masks. aski contributes two steps: (i) CCD images of possibly crowded galactic fields are deblurred using automated edge-preserving deconvolution; (ii) once the reduced shear is estimated using standard techniques, the partially masked convergence map is also inverted via an edge-preserving method. The efficiency of the deblurring of the image is quantified by the relative gain in the quality factor of the reduced shear, as estimated by SExtractor. Cross-validation as a function of the number of stars removed yields an automatic estimate of the optimal level of regularization for the deconvolution of the galaxies. It is found that when the observed field is crowded, this gain can be quite significant for realistic ground-based 8-m class surveys. The most significant improvement occurs when both positivity and edge-preserving â1ââ2 penalties are imposed during the iterative deconvolution. The quality of the convergence inversion is investigated on noisy maps derived from the horizon-4ÏN-body simulation with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) within the range âcut= 500-2500, with and without Galactic cuts, and quantified using one-point statistics (S3 and S4), power spectra, cluster counts, peak patches and the skeleton. It is found that (i) the reconstruction is able to interpolate and extrapolate within the Galactic cuts/non-uniform noise; (ii) its sharpness-preserving penalization avoids strong biasing near the clusters of the map; (iii) it reconstructs well the shape of the PDF as traced by its skewness and kurtosis; (iv) the geometry and topology of the reconstructed map are close to the initial map as traced by the peak patch distribution and the skeleton's differential length; (v) the two-point statistics of the recovered map are consistent with the corresponding smoothed version of the initial map; (vi) the distribution of point sources is also consistent with the corresponding smoothing, with a significant improvement when â1ââ2 prior is applied. The contamination of B modes when realistic Galactic cuts are present is also investigated. Leakage mainly occurs on large scales. The non-linearities implemented in the model are significant on small scales near the peaks in the fiel

### Cosmic Shear Analysis with CFHTLS Deep data

We present the first cosmic shear measurements obtained from the T0001
release of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. The data set
covers three uncorrelated patches (D1, D3 and D4) of one square degree each
observed in u*, g', r', i' and z' bands, out to i'=25.5. The depth and the
multicolored observations done in deep fields enable several data quality
controls. The lensing signal is detected in both r' and i' bands and shows
similar amplitude and slope in both filters. B-modes are found to be
statistically zero at all scales. Using multi-color information, we derived a
photometric redshift for each galaxy and separate the sample into medium and
high-z galaxies. A stronger shear signal is detected from the high-z subsample
than from the low-z subsample, as expected from weak lensing tomography. While
further work is needed to model the effects of errors in the photometric
redshifts, this results suggests that it will be possible to obtain constraints
on the growth of dark matter fluctuations with lensing wide field surveys. The
various quality tests and analysis discussed in this work demonstrate that
MegaPrime/Megacam instrument produces excellent quality data. The combined Deep
and Wide surveys give sigma_8= 0.89 pm 0.06 assuming the Peacock & Dodds
non-linear scheme and sigma_8=0.86 pm 0.05 for the halo fitting model and
Omega_m=0.3. We assumed a Cold Dark Matter model with flat geometry.
Systematics, Hubble constant and redshift uncertainties have been marginalized
over. Using only data from the Deep survey, the 1 sigma upper bound for w_0,
the constant equation of state parameter is w_0 < -0.8.Comment: 14 pages, 16 figures, accepted A&

### The cosmic shear three-point functions

We investigate the three-point functions of the weak lensing cosmic shear,
using both analytic methods and numerical results from N-body simulations. The
analytic model, an isolated dark matter halo with a powerlaw profile chosen to
fit the effective index at the scale probed, can be used to understand the
basic properties of the eight three-point functions observed in simulations. We
use this model to construct a single three-point function estimator that
"optimally" combines the eight three-point functions. This new estimator is an
alternative to Map statistics and provides up to a factor of two improvement in
signal to noise compared to previously used combinations of cosmic shear
three-point functions.Comment: 17 pages, 18 figures. Submitted to A&

### Intrinsic alignment of simulated galaxies in the cosmic web: implications for weak lensing surveys

The intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes (by means of their angular momentum) and their cross-correlation with the surrounding dark matter tidal field are investigated using the 160000, z=1.2 synthetic galaxies extracted from the high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulation horizon-agn. One- and two-point statistics of the spin of the stellar component are measured as a function of mass and colour. For the low-mass galaxies, this spin is locally aligned with the tidal field âfilamentary' direction while, for the high-mass galaxies, it is perpendicular to both filaments and walls. The bluest galaxies of our synthetic catalogue are more strongly correlated with the surrounding tidal field than the reddest galaxies, and this correlation extends up toâŒ10hâ 1âMpc comoving distance. We also report a correlation of the projected ellipticities of blue, intermediate-mass galaxies on a similar scale at a level of 10â4 which could be a concern for cosmic shear measurements. We do not report any measurable intrinsic alignments of the reddest galaxies of our sample. This work is a first step towards the use of very realistic catalogue of synthetic galaxies to evaluate the contamination of weak lensing measurement by the intrinsic galactic alignment

### CMB B-polarization to map the Large-scale Structures of the Universe

We explore the possibility of using the B-type polarization of the CMB to map
the large-scale structures of the Universe taking advantage of the lens effects
on the CMB polarization. The functional relation between the B component with
the primordial CMB polarization and the line-of-sight mass distribution is
explicited. Noting that a sizeable fraction (at least 40%) of the dark halo
population which is responsible of this effect can also be detected in galaxy
weak lensing survey, we present statistical quantities that should exhibit a
strong sensitivity to this overlapping. We stress that it would be a sound test
of the gravitational instability picture, independent on many systematic
effects that may hamper lensing detection in CMB or galaxy survey alone.
Moreover we estimate the intrinsic cosmic variance of the amplitude of this
effect to be less than 8% for a 100, deg^2 survey with a 10' CMB beam. Its
measurement would then provide us with an original mean for constraining the
cosmological parameters, more particularly, as it turns out, the cosmological
constant Lambda.Comment: Latex2e with REVTEX ; 14 pages, 8 figure

### Dark energy constraints and correlations with systematics from CFHTLS weak lensing, SNLS supernovae Ia and WMAP5

We combine measurements of weak gravitational lensing from the CFHTLS-Wide
survey, supernovae Ia from CFHT SNLS and CMB anisotropies from WMAP5 to obtain
joint constraints on cosmological parameters, in particular, the dark energy
equation of state parameter w. We assess the influence of systematics in the
data on the results and look for possible correlations with cosmological
parameters.
We implement an MCMC algorithm to sample the parameter space of a flat CDM
model with a dark-energy component of constant w. Systematics in the data are
parametrised and included in the analysis. We determine the influence of
photometric calibration of SNIa data on cosmological results by calculating the
response of the distance modulus to photometric zero-point variations. The weak
lensing data set is tested for anomalous field-to-field variations and a
systematic shape measurement bias for high-z galaxies.
Ignoring photometric uncertainties for SNLS biases cosmological parameters by
at most 20% of the statistical errors, using supernovae only; the parameter
uncertainties are underestimated by 10%. The weak lensing field-to-field
variance pointings is 5%-15% higher than that predicted from N-body
simulations. We find no bias of the lensing signal at high redshift, within the
framework of a simple model. Assuming a systematic underestimation of the
lensing signal at high redshift, the normalisation sigma_8 increases by up to
8%. Combining all three probes we obtain -0.10<1+w<0.06 at 68% confidence
(-0.18<1+w<0.12 at 95%), including systematic errors. Systematics in the data
increase the error bars by up to 35%; the best-fit values change by less than
0.15sigma. [Abridged]Comment: 14 pages, 10 figures. Revised version, matches the one to be
published in A&A. Modifications have been made corresponding to the referee's
suggestions, including reordering of some section

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