63,161 research outputs found

    Comment on "Separability of quantum states and the violation of Bell-type inequalities"

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    The statement of E.R. Loubenets, Phys. Rev. A 69, 042102 (2004), that separable states can violate classical probabilistic constraints is based on a misleading definition of classicality, which is much narrower than Bell's concept of local hidden variables. In a Bell type setting the notion of classicality used by Loubenets corresponds to the assumption of perfect correlations if the same observable is measured on both sides. While it is obvious that most separable states do not satisfy this assumption, this does not constitute "non-classical" behaviour in any usual sense of the word.Comment: 1 page, accepted by Phys. Rev.

    Correlation functions, Bell's inequalities and the fundamental conservation laws

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    I derive the correlation function for a general theory of two-valued spin variables that satisfy the fundamental conservation law of angular momentum. The unique theory-independent correlation function is identical to the quantum mechanical correlation function. I prove that any theory of correlations of such discrete variables satisfying the fundamental conservation law of angular momentum violates the Bell's inequalities. Taken together with the Bell's theorem, this result has far reaching implications. No theory satisfying Einstein locality, reality in the EPR-Bell sense, and the validity of the conservation law can be constructed. Therefore, all local hidden variable theories are incompatible with fundamental symmetries and conservation laws. Bell's inequalities can be obeyed only by violating a conservation law. The implications for experiments on Bell's inequalities are obvious. The result provides new insight regarding entanglement, and its measures.Comment: LaTeX, 12pt, 11 pages, 2 figure

    Bell's theorem as a signature of nonlocality: a classical counterexample

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    For a system composed of two particles Bell's theorem asserts that averages of physical quantities determined from local variables must conform to a family of inequalities. In this work we show that a classical model containing a local probabilistic interaction in the measurement process can lead to a violation of the Bell inequalities. We first introduce two-particle phase-space distributions in classical mechanics constructed to be the analogs of quantum mechanical angular momentum eigenstates. These distributions are then employed in four schemes characterized by different types of detectors measuring the angular momenta. When the model includes an interaction between the detector and the measured particle leading to ensemble dependencies, the relevant Bell inequalities are violated if total angular momentum is required to be conserved. The violation is explained by identifying assumptions made in the derivation of Bell's theorem that are not fulfilled by the model. These assumptions will be argued to be too restrictive to see in the violation of the Bell inequalities a faithful signature of nonlocality.Comment: Extended manuscript. Significant change

    Not throwing out the baby with the bathwater: Bell's condition of local causality mathematically 'sharp and clean'

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    The starting point of the present paper is Bell's notion of local causality and his own sharpening of it so as to provide for mathematical formalisation. Starting with Norsen's (2007, 2009) analysis of this formalisation, it is subjected to a critique that reveals two crucial aspects that have so far not been properly taken into account. These are (i) the correct understanding of the notions of sufficiency, completeness and redundancy involved; and (ii) the fact that the apparatus settings and measurement outcomes have very different theoretical roles in the candidate theories under study. Both aspects are not adequately incorporated in the standard formalisation, and we will therefore do so. The upshot of our analysis is a more detailed, sharp and clean mathematical expression of the condition of local causality. A preliminary analysis of the repercussions of our proposal shows that it is able to locate exactly where and how the notions of locality and causality are involved in formalising Bell's condition of local causality.Comment: 14 pages. To be published in PSE volume "Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation", edited by Dieks, et a

    Quantum interference and non-locality of independent photons from disparate sources

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    We quantitatively investigate the non-classicality and non-locality of a whole new class of mixed disparate quantum and semiquantum photon sources at the quantum-classical boundary. The latter include photon added thermal and photon added coherent sources, experimentally investigated recently by Zavatta et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140406 (2009)]. The key quantity in our investigations is the visibility of the corresponding photon-photon correlation function. We present explicit results on the violations of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality - which is a measure of nonclassicality - as well as of Bell-type inequalities.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figure

    Monogamy of Bell's inequality violations in non-signaling theories

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    We derive monogamy relations (tradeoffs) between strengths of violations of Bell's inequalities from the non-signaling condition. Our result applies to general Bell inequalities with an arbitrary large number of partners, outcomes and measurement settings. The method is simple, efficient and does not require linear programming. The results are used to derive optimal fidelity for asymmetric cloning in nonsignaling theories.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, published versio

    Class of bipartite quantum states satisfying the original Bell inequality

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    In a general setting, we introduce a new bipartite state property sufficient for the validity of the perfect correlation form of the original Bell inequality for any three bounded quantum observables. A bipartite quantum state with this property does not necessarily exhibit perfect correlations. The class of bipartite states specified by this property includes both separable and nonseparable states. We prove analytically that, for any dimension d>2, every Werner state, separable or nonseparable, belongs to this class.Comment: 6 pages, v.2: one reference added, the statement on Werner states essentially extended; v.3: details of proofs inserte

    Loophole-free test of quantum non-locality using high-efficiency homodyne detectors

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    We provide a detailed analysis of the recently proposed setup for a loophole-free test of Bell inequality using conditionally generated non-Gaussian states of light and balanced homodyning. In the proposed scheme, a two-mode squeezed vacuum state is de-gaussified by subtracting a single photon from each mode with the use of an unbalanced beam splitter and a standard low-efficiency single-photon detector. We thoroughly discuss the dependence of the achievable Bell violation on the various relevant experimental parameters such as the detector efficiencies, the electronic noise and the mixedness of the initial Gaussian state. We also consider several alternative schemes involving squeezed states, linear optical elements, conditional photon subtraction and homodyne detection.Comment: 13 pages, 14 figures, RevTeX

    On the dimension of H-strata in quantum matrices

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    We study the topology of the prime spectrum of an algebra supporting a rational torus action. More precisely, we study inclusions between prime ideals that are torus-invariant using the HH-stratification theory of Goodearl and Letzter on one hand and the theory of deleting derivations of Cauchon on the other. We apply the results obtained to the algebra of mĂ—nm \times n generic quantum matrices to show that the dimensions of the HH-strata described by Goodearl and Letzter are bounded above by the minimum of mm and nn, and that moreover all the values between 0 and this bound are achieved.Comment: New introduction; results improve

    Maximal violation of Bell inequality for any given two-qubit pure state

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    In the case of bipartite two qubits systems, we derive the analytical expression of bound of Bell operator for any given pure state. Our result not only manifest some properties of Bell inequality, for example which may be violated by any pure entangled state and only be maximally violated for a maximally entangled state, but also give the explicit values of maximal violation for any pure state. Finally we point out that for two qubits systems there is no mixed state which can produce maximal violation of Bell inequality.Comment: 3 pages, 1 figure
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