432 research outputs found

    Standard FITS template for simulated astrophysical scenes with the WFIRST coronagraph

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    The science investigation teams (SITs) for the WFIRST coronagraphic instrument have begun studying the capabilities of the instrument to directly image reflected light off from exoplanets at contrasts down to contrasts of ~10^-9 with respect to the stellar flux. Detection of point sources at these high contrasts requires yield estimates and detailed modeling of the image of the planetary system as it propagates through the telescope optics. While the SITs might generate custom astrophysical scenes, the integrated model, propagated through the internal speckle field, is typically done at JPL. In this white paper, we present a standard file format to ensure a single distribution system between those who produce the raw astrophysical scenes, and JPL modelers who incorporate those scenes into their optical modeling. At its core, our custom file format uses FITS files, and incorporates standards on packaging astrophysical scenes. This includes spectral and astrometric information for planetary and stellar point sources, zodiacal light and extragalactic sources that may appear as contaminants. Adhering to such a uniform data distribution format is necessary, as it ensures seamless work flow between the SITs and modelers at JPL for the goals of understanding limits of the WFIRST coronagraphic instrument.Comment: 8 pages, white pape

    Understanding The Effects Of Stellar Multiplicity On The Derived Planet Radii From Transit Surveys: Implications for Kepler, K2, and TESS

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    We present a study on the effect of undetected stellar companions on the derived planetary radii for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). The current production of the KOI list assumes that the each KOI is a single star. Not accounting for stellar multiplicity statistically biases the planets towards smaller radii. The bias towards smaller radii depends on the properties of the companion stars and whether the planets orbit the primary or the companion stars. Defining a planetary radius correction factor XRX_R, we find that if the KOIs are assumed to be single, then, {\it on average}, the planetary radii may be underestimated by a factor of XR1.5\langle X_R \rangle \approx 1.5. If typical radial velocity and high resolution imaging observations are performed and no companions are detected, this factor reduces to XR1.2\langle X_R \rangle \approx 1.2. The correction factor XR\langle X_R \rangle is dependent upon the primary star properties and ranges from XR1.6\langle X_R \rangle \approx 1.6 for A and F stars to XR1.2\langle X_R \rangle \approx 1.2 for K and M stars. For missions like K2 and TESS where the stars may be closer than the stars in the Kepler target sample, observational vetting (primary imaging) reduces the radius correction factor to XR1.1\langle X_R \rangle \approx 1.1. Finally, we show that if the stellar multiplicity rates are not accounted for correctly, occurrence rate calculations for Earth-sized planets may overestimate the frequency of small planets by as much as 152015-20\%.Comment: 10 pages, 6 Figures, Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal (Fix typo in Equation 6 of original astroph submission; correction also submitted to Journal

    Mapping out the time-evolution of exoplanet processes

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    There are many competing theories and models describing the formation, migration and evolution of exoplanet systems. As both the precision with which we can characterize exoplanets and their host stars, and the number of systems for which we can make such a characterization increase, we begin to see pathways forward for validating these theories. In this white paper we identify predicted, observable correlations that are accessible in the near future, particularly trends in exoplanet populations, radii, orbits and atmospheres with host star age. By compiling a statistically significant sample of well-characterized exoplanets with precisely measured ages, we should be able to begin identifying the dominant processes governing the time-evolution of exoplanet systems.Comment: Astro2020 white pape

    Planet Sensitivity from Combined Ground- and Space-based Microlensing Observations

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    To move one step forward toward a Galactic distribution of planets, we present the first planet sensitivity analysis for microlensing events with simultaneous observations from space and the ground. We present this analysis for two such events, OGLE-2014-BLG-0939 and OGLE-2014-BLG-0124, which both show substantial planet sensitivity even though neither of them reached high magnification. This suggests that an ensemble of low to moderate magnification events can also yield significant planet sensitivity, and therefore probability, for detecting planets. The implications of our results to the ongoing and future space-based microlensing experiments to measure the Galactic distribution of planets are discussed

    A White Paper Submitted to The National Academy of Science's Committee on Exoplanet Science Strategy: Observing Exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope

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    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will revolutionize our understanding of exoplanets with transit spectroscopy of a wide range of mature planets close to their host stars (10 AU). The census of exoplanets has revealed an enormous variety of planets orbiting stars of all ages and spectral types. With TESS adding to this census with its all-sky survey of the closest, brightest stars, the challenge of the coming decade will be to move from demography to physical characterization. This white paper discusses the wide variety of exoplanet opportunities enabled by JWST's sensitivity and stability, its high angular resolution, and its suite of powerful instruments. JWST observations will advance our understanding of the atmospheres of young to mature planets and will provide new insights into planet formation

    Know the Star, Know the Planet. V. Characterization of the Stellar Companion to the Exoplanet Host HD 177830

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    HD 177830 is an evolved K0IV star with two known exoplanets. In addition to the planetary companions it has a late-type stellar companion discovered with adaptive optics imagery. We observed the binary star system with the PHARO near-IR camera and the Project 1640 coronagraph. Using the Project 1640 coronagraph and integral field spectrograph we extracted a spectrum of the stellar companion. This allowed us to determine that the spectral type of the stellar companion is a M4±1V. We used both instruments to measure the astrometry of the binary system. Combining these data with published data, we determined that the binary star has a likely period of approximately 800 years with a semi-major axis of 100-200 AU. This implies that the stellar companion has had little or no impact on the dynamics of the exoplanets. The astrometry of the system should continue to be monitored, but due to the slow nature of the system, observations can be made once every 5-10 years

    HD 2685 b: a hot Jupiter orbiting an early F-type star detected by TESS

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    We report on the confirmation of a transiting giant planet around the relatively hot (T_(eff) = 6801 ± 76 K) star HD 2685, whose transit signal was detected in Sector 1 data of NASA’s TESS mission. We confirmed the planetary nature of the transit signal using Doppler velocimetric measurements with CHIRON, CORALIE, and FEROS, as well as using photometric data obtained with the Chilean-Hungarian Automated Telescope and the Las Cumbres Observatory. From the joint analysis of photometry and radial velocities, we derived the following parameters for HD 2685 b: P = 4.12688_(−0.00004)^(+0.00005) days, e= 0.091_(−0.047)^(+0.039), M_P = 1.17 ± 0.12 M_J, and RP =1.44 ± 0.05 RJ. This system is a typical example of an inflated transiting hot Jupiter in a low-eccentricity orbit. Based on the apparent visual magnitude (V = 9.6 mag) of the host star, this is one of the brightest known stars hosting a transiting hot Jupiter, and it is a good example of the upcoming systems that will be detected by TESS during the two-year primary mission. This is also an excellent target for future ground- and space-based atmospheric characterization as well as a good candidate for measuring the projected spin-orbit misalignment angle through the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect
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