1,400 research outputs found

    A new track for technology: Can ICT take care for healthier lifestyles?

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    The paper takes a look on potential contribution of Information and Communication Technologies to abate public health challenges caused by demographics and lifestyle. From the current convergence of mhealth, and sport market products emerge targeting normal athletes to control their training in a quantified manner. The resulting feedback and transparency foster a healthier lifestyle. These products and services help overcome limitations to innovation typical to the health care market. The paper is based on research by the European Commission's Institute for Prospective Technological Studies on Integrated Personal Health/Care services. --eHealth,Integrated Personal Health/Care services,sport,training,lifestyle related disease,innovation

    Attosecond electron pulses for 4D diffraction and microscopy

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    In this contribution, we consider the advancement of ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy to cover the attosecond time domain. The concept is centered on the compression of femtosecond electron packets to trains of 15-attosecond pulses by the use of the ponderomotive force in synthesized gratings of optical fields. Such attosecond electron pulses are significantly shorter than those achievable with extreme UV light sources near 25 nm ({approx}50 eV) and have the potential for applications in the visualization of ultrafast electron dynamics, especially of atomic structures, clusters of atoms, and some materials

    Agricultural Employment Trends in an Enlarged European Union: Does the CAP Reform/Introduction Matter?

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    In the course of economic development there is a general downward trend of agricultural employment, although structural change in agriculture is often delayed. In the EU-15, agricultural employment decreased by -2.3% p.a. (measured in regular persons) and -3.0% p.a. (measured in annual working units) between 1995 and 2000. In some of the new EU Member States, employment in agriculture plummeted in the early 1990s, whereas in others it increased during the first years of transition and has served as a social buffer in times of economic hardship. The most important determinants of agricultural employment changes are labor saving technical progress, the macroeconomic environment, the farm structure, socio-economic characteristics of the farmer and agricultural support policies. Currently, farmers in the enlarged EU are facing significant policy changes, both in the EU-15 (2003 CAP reform) and in the new Member States (CAP introduction). The results of 15 case studies assessing the future development of agricultural employment and the impact of CAP reform/introduction confirm the general downward trend which overall will not be much affected by these policy changes. However, the case studies also reveal significant differences between regions and enterprises.Agricultural labor market, agricultural policy, European Union, transition countries, case studies, Agricultural and Food Policy, Labor and Human Capital, J43, Q18, Q19,

    AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN AN ENLARGED EUROPEAN UNION: DOES THE CAP REFORM / INTRODUCTION MATTER?

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    In the course of economic development there is a general downward trend of agricultural employment. In the EU-15, agricultural employment decreased by 2.3% p.a. (measured in regular persons) and 3.0% p.a. (measured in annual working units) between 1995 and 2000. In some of the new EU Member States, employment in agriculture plummeted in the early 1990s, whereas in others it increased during the first years of transition and has served as a social buffer in times of economic hardship. The most important determinants of agricultural employment changes are labor saving technical progress, the macroeconomic environment, the farm structure, socio-economic characteristics of the farmer and agricultural support policies. Currently, farmers in the enlarged EU are facing significant policy changes, both in the EU-15 (2003 CAP reform) and in the new Member States (CAP introduction). The results of 15 case studies assessing the future development of agricultural employment and the impact of CAP reform/introduction confirm the general downward trend which overall will not be much affected by these policy changes. However, the case studies also reveal significant differences between regions and enterprises.Agricultural labor market, agricultural policy, European Union, transition countries, case studies., Agricultural and Food Policy,

    On hidden Markov chains and finite stochastic systems

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    In this paper we study various properties of finite stochastic systems or hidden Markov chains as they are alternatively called. We discuss their construction following different approaches and we also derive recursive filtering formulas for the different systems that we consider. The key tool is a simple lemma on conditional expectations

    Structural Preablation Dynamics of Graphite Observed by Ultrafast Electron Crystallography

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    By means of time-resolved electron crystallography, we report direct observation of the structural dynamics of graphite, providing new insights into the processes involving coherent lattice motions and ultrafast graphene ablation. When graphite is excited by an ultrashort laser pulse, the excited carriers reach their equilibrium in less then one picosecond by transferring heat to a subset of strongly coupled optical phonons. The time-resolved diffraction data show that on such a time scale the crystal undergoes a contraction whose velocity depends on the excitation fluence. The contraction is followed by a large expansion which, at sufficiently high fluence, leads to the ablation of entire graphene layers, as recently predicted theoretically
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