7,173 research outputs found

    Supporting children's resettlement ('reentry') after custody : beyond the risk paradigm

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    In response to policy concerns in England and Wales and internationally, a considerable knowledge-base has identified factors statistically associated with reduced recidivism for children leaving custody. However, despite resulting guidance on how to support resettlement (‘reentry’), practice and outcomes remain disappointing. We argue that this failure reflects weaknesses in the dominant ‘risk paradigm’, which lacks a theory of change and undermines children’s agency. We conceptualise resettlement as a pro-social identity-shift. A new practice model reinterprets existing risk-based messages accordingly, and crucially adds principles to guide a child’s desistance journey. However, successful implementation may require the model to inform culture change more broadly across youth justice

    Resettlement of young people leaving custody: Lessons from the literature update: July 2013

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    This paper is the first in a series of quarterly updates intended to outline the latest available lessons from research about resettlement of young offenders. It provides an overview of the relevant literature published in the period since Beyond Youth Custody’s extensive review of the literature on the resettlement of young people from custody was published in April 2013. It highlights that the number of children in custody has continued to fall. While clearly welcome, this presents challenges for the secure estate especially in terms of resettlement provision. It outlines some of the proposed changes to the secure estate such as decommissioning of places in establishments, new healthcare standards and the government’s consultation around the intention to redesign the secure estate to put education at the heart of provision. It summarises the findings of a recent small-scale qualitative study with girls in a YOI, highlighting key factors that encourage girls and young women to engage with resettlement services

    Resettlement of young people leaving custody: Lessons from the literature

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    This literature review aims to set out the research and practice evidence about effective resettlement services for children and young adults and can be used to inform future policy and practice to ensure service delivery is evidence based. The findings of the review will help to steer the focus of Beyond Youth Custody’s research over the duration of the programme and act as a baseline to assess how our understanding has advanced in terms of what works in facilitating the transition from youth custody to the community and beyond. In addition, the review highlights some examples of good practice, as well as the emerging key principles of effective resettlement provision

    Representations and Properties of Generalized ArA_r Statistics

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    A generalization of ArA_r statistics is proposed and developed. The generalized ArA_r quantum statistics is completely specified by a set of Jacobson generators satisfying a set of triple algebraic relations. Fock-Hilbert representations and Bargmann-Fock realizations are derived.Comment: 12 pages, to appear in IJMPA (2006

    Coherent structures in oscillatory flows within the laminar-to-turbulent transition regime for smooth and rough walls

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    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in [Journal of hydraulic research] on [2016], available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/00221686.2016.1174960We investigate coherent structures present in oscillatory boundary layers over smooth and rough beds for Reynolds numbers between 103 and 104, in the transition to turbulence regime. A two-camera 2D- particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to visualize coherent structures in an oscillatory-flow tunnel. The obtained results show that smooth-bed flow is populated by vortex-tube structures that are formed due to the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. Three types of coherent structures are observed in the rough-wall experiments: vortices randomly distributed in space; turbulent bursts – spatial structures without a clear shape compared to vortices but with a longer life than the former; and shear layers of vortices originating due to flow separation from some of the grains on the bed. The reported study contributes to the description of coherent structures in oscillatory flows that are captured with the PIV technique, particularly a new structure in flows over rough beds in the transition to turbulence regime.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Resettlement: Lessons from the literature update November 2014

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    This review outlines the latest lessons from research, policy and practice in the resettlement of young offenders. It provides an overview of relevant literature and developments in the filed of youth justice since Beyond Youth Custody’s last update in August 2014. •It updates on the latest from the government’s ‘Transforming Youth Custody’ agenda, around changes to the custodial estate including the decommissioning of custodial places and highlights possible implications these changes have for the resettlement of young people. •It outlines developments in resettlement practice and interventions from both a UK and international context including mental health support, sports interventions, mentoring and post-custody drug-related interventions. •It illuminates the findings of recent research into the experiences of bereavement among young men in custody exploring how the prison context impacts on young people who have experienced recent bereavement

    Capacitors can radiate - some consequences of the two-capacitor problem with radiation

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    We fill a gap in the arguments of Boykin et al [American Journal of Physics, Vol 70 No. 4, pp 415-420 (2002)] by not invoking an electric current loop (i.e. magnetic dipole model) to account for the radiation energy loss, since an obvious corollary of their results is that the capacitors should radiate directly even if the connecting wires are shrunk to zero length. That this is so is shown here by a direct derivation of capacitor radiation using an oscillating electric dipole radiator model for the capacitors as well as the alternative less widely known magnetic 'charge' current loop representation for an electric dipole [see for example "Electromagnetic Waves" by S.A.Schlekunoff, van Nostrand (1948)]. Implications for Electromagnetic Compliance (EMC) issues as well as novel antenna designs further motivate the purpose of this paper.Comment: 5 Pages with No figure

    Resettlement of young people leaving resettlement:Lessons from the literature update: October 2013

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    This paper is the second in a series of quarterly updates intended to outline the latest available lessons from research about resettlement of young offenders. It provides an overview of the relevant literature published in the period since Beyond Youth Custody’s first update of the literature that was published in July 2013. It highlights that the number of children and young adults in custody has continued to fall. Such falls are welcome but also have implications for resettlement services since the residual incarcerated population is likely to have more entrenched offending behaviour and higher concentration of problems. It outlines some of the proposed changes to the secure estate including the provisions of the Offender Rehabilitation Bill and how they will affect young people in different ways. It identifies that while there is an increasing understanding of the general principles that underlie effective resettlement work, there is less concrete evidence of the impact of particular interventions, especially where these are delivered by non-statutory partner

    Resettlement of young people leaving resettlement: Lessons from the literature update: August 2014

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    This paper is the latest in a series of regular updates intended to outline the latest available lessons from research about resettlement of young offenders. It provides an overview of the relevant literature published in the period since Beyond Youth Custody’s last update that was published in March 2013. •It highlights that the number of children and young adults in custody has continued to fall. Such falls are welcome but also have implications for resettlement services since the residual incarcerated population is likely to have more entrenched offending behaviour and higher concentration of problems. •It outlines developments of the proposed changes to the custodial estate. •It considers published reports from the Ministry of Justice’s Data Lab and their analysis of individual organisations’ impact on reoffending. •From an international perspective it considers the evaluation of different programmes of community-based re-entry programmes for prisoners leaving custody

    Refining pathological evaluation of neoadjuvant therapy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus

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    AIM: To assess tumour regression grade (TRG) and lymph node downstaging to help define patients who benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy.METHODS: Two hundred and eighteen consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastro-esophageal junction treated with surgery alone or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery between 2005 and 2011 at a single institution were reviewed. Triplet neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of platinum, fluoropyrimidine and anthracycline was considered for operable patients (World Health Organization performance status ? 2) with clinical stage T2-4 N0-1. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) was assessed using TRG, as described by Mandard et al. In addition lymph node downstaging was also assessed. Lymph node downstaging was defined by cN1 at diagnosis: assessed radiologically (computed tomography, positron emission tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography), then pathologically recorded as N0 after surgery; ypN0 if NAC given prior to surgery, or pN0 if surgery alone. Patients were followed up for 5 years post surgery. Recurrence was defined radiologically, with or without pathological confirmation. An association was examined between t TRG and lymph node downstaging with disease free survival (DFS) and a comprehensive range of clinicopathological characteristics.RESULTS: Two hundred and eighteen patients underwent esophageal resection during the study interval with a mean follow up of 3 years (median follow up: 2.552, 95%CI: 2.022-3.081). There was a 1.8% (n = 4) inpatient mortality rate. One hundred and thirty-six (62.4%) patients received NAC, with 74.3% (n = 101) of patients demonstrating some signs of pathological tumour regression (TRG 1-4) and 5.9% (n = 8) having a complete pathological response. Forty four point one percent (n = 60) had downstaging of their nodal disease (cN1 to ypN0), compared to only 15.9% (n = 13) that underwent surgery alone (pre-operatively overstaged: cN1 to pN0), (P < 0.0001). Response to NAC was associated with significantly increased DFS (mean DFS; TRG 1-2: 5.1 years, 95%CI: 4.6-5.6 vs TRG 3-5: 2.8 years, 95%CI: 2.2-3.3, P < 0.0001). Nodal down-staging conferred a significant DFS advantage for those patients with a poor primary tumour response to NAC (median DFS; TRG 3-5 and nodal down-staging: 5.533 years, 95%CI: 3.558-7.531 vs TRG 3-5 and no nodal down-staging: 1.114 years, 95%CI: 0.961-1.267, P < 0.0001).CONCLUSION: Response to NAC in the primary tumour and in the lymph nodes are both independently associated with improved DFS
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