268 research outputs found

    John Kells Ingram (1823-1907)

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    Measuring the decoherence rate in a semiconductor charge qubit

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    We describe a method by which the decoherence time of a solid state qubit may be measured. The qubit is coded in the orbital degree of freedom of a single electron bound to a pair of donor impurities in a semiconductor host. The qubit is manipulated by adiabatically varying an external electric field. We show that, by measuring the total probability of a successful qubit rotation as a function of the control field parameters, the decoherence rate may be determined. We estimate various system parameters, including the decoherence rates due to electromagnetic fluctuations and acoustic phonons. We find that, for reasonable physical parameters, the experiment is possible with existing technology. In particular, the use of adiabatic control fields implies that the experiment can be performed with control electronics with a time resolution of tens of nanoseconds.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, revtex

    Cost and Outcome of Behavioural Activation versus Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Depression (COBRA): a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial

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    Background Depression is a common, debilitating, and costly disorder. Many patients request psychological therapy, but the best-evidenced therapy‚ÄĒcognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)‚ÄĒis complex and costly. A simpler therapy‚ÄĒbehavioural activation (BA)‚ÄĒmight be as effective and cheaper than is CBT. We aimed to establish the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of BA compared with CBT for adults with depression. Methods In this randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial, we recruited adults aged 18 years or older meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria for major depressive disorder from primary care and psychological therapy services in Devon, Durham, and Leeds (UK). We excluded people who were receiving psychological therapy, were alcohol or drug dependent, were acutely suicidal or had attempted suicide in the previous 2 months, or were cognitively impaired, or who had bipolar disorder or psychosis or psychotic symptoms. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) remotely using computer-generated allocation (minimisation used; stratified by depression severity [Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) score of <19 vs ‚Č•19], antidepressant use, and recruitment site) to BA from junior mental health workers or CBT from psychological therapists. Randomisation done at the Peninsula Clinical Trials Unit was concealed from investigators. Treatment was given open label, but outcome assessors were masked. The primary outcome was depression symptoms according to the PHQ-9 at 12 months. We analysed all those who were randomly allocated and had complete data (modified intention to treat [mITT]) and also all those who were randomly allocated, had complete data, and received at least eight treatment sessions (per protocol [PP]). We analysed safety in the mITT population. The non-inferiority margin was 1¬∑9 PHQ-9 points. This trial is registered with the ISCRTN registry, number ISRCTN27473954. Findings Between Sept 26, 2012, and April 3, 2014, we randomly allocated 221 (50%) participants to BA and 219 (50%) to CBT. 175 (79%) participants were assessable for the primary outcome in the mITT population in the BA group compared with 189 (86%) in the CBT group, whereas 135 (61%) were assessable in the PP population in the BA group compared with 151 (69%) in the CBT group. BA was non-inferior to CBT (mITT: CBT 8¬∑4 PHQ-9 points [SD 7¬∑5], BA 8¬∑4 PHQ-9 points [7¬∑0], mean difference 0¬∑1 PHQ-9 points [95% CI ‚ąí1¬∑3 to 1¬∑5], p=0¬∑89; PP: CBT 7¬∑9 PHQ-9 points [7¬∑3]; BA 7¬∑8 [6¬∑5], mean difference 0¬∑0 PHQ-9 points [‚Äď1¬∑5 to 1¬∑6], p=0¬∑99). Two (1%) non-trial-related deaths (one [1%] multidrug toxicity in the BA group and one [1%] cancer in the CBT group) and 15 depression-related, but not treatment-related, serious adverse events (three in the BA group and 12 in the CBT group) occurred in three [2%] participants in the BA group (two [1%] patients who overdosed and one [1%] who self-harmed) and eight (4%) participants in the CBT group (seven [4%] who overdosed and one [1%] who self-harmed). Interpretation We found that BA, a simpler psychological treatment than CBT, can be delivered by junior mental health workers with less intensive and costly training, with no lesser effect than CBT. Effective psychological therapy for depression can be delivered without the need for costly and highly trained professionals. Funding National Institute for Health Research

    Affective Man-Machine Interface: Unveiling human emotions through biosignals

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    As is known for centuries, humans exhibit an electrical profile. This profile is altered through various psychological and physiological processes, which can be measured through biosignals; e.g., electromyography (EMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA). These biosignals can reveal our emotions and, as such, can serve as an advanced man-machine interface (MMI) for empathic consumer products. However, such a MMI requires the correct classification of biosignals to emotion classes. This chapter starts with an introduction on biosignals for emotion detection. Next, a state-of-the-art review is presented on automatic emotion classification. Moreover, guidelines are presented for affective MMI. Subsequently, a research is presented that explores the use of EDA and three facial EMG signals to determine neutral, positive, negative, and mixed emotions, using recordings of 21 people. A range of techniques is tested, which resulted in a generic framework for automated emotion classification with up to 61.31% correct classification of the four emotion classes, without the need of personal profiles. Among various other directives for future research, the results emphasize the need for parallel processing of multiple biosignals

    Loop Quantum Gravity: An Inside View

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    This is a (relatively) non -- technical summary of the status of the quantum dynamics in Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). We explain in detail the historical evolution of the subject and why the results obtained so far are non -- trivial. The present text can be viewed in part as a response to an article by Nicolai, Peeters and Zamaklar [hep-th/0501114]. We also explain why certain no go conclusions drawn from a mathematically correct calculation in a recent paper by Helling et al [hep-th/0409182] are physically incorrect.Comment: 58 pages, no figure

    Quantitative Treatment of Decoherence

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    We outline different approaches to define and quantify decoherence. We argue that a measure based on a properly defined norm of deviation of the density matrix is appropriate for quantifying decoherence in quantum registers. For a semiconductor double quantum dot qubit, evaluation of this measure is reviewed. For a general class of decoherence processes, including those occurring in semiconductor qubits, we argue that this measure is additive: It scales linearly with the number of qubits.Comment: Revised version, 26 pages, in LaTeX, 3 EPS figure

    Negotiating Value: Comparing Human and Animal Fracture Care in Industrial Societies

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    At the beginning of the twentieth-century, human and veterinary surgeons faced the challenge of a medical marketplace transformed by technology. The socio-economic value ascribed to their patients ‚Äď people and domestic animals ‚Äď was changing, reflecting the increasing mechanisation of industry and the decreasing dependence of society upon non-human animals for labour. In human medicine, concern for the economic consequences of fractures ‚Äúpathologised‚ÄĚ any significant level of post-therapeutic disability, a productivist perspective contrary to the traditional corpus of medical values. In contrast, veterinarians adapted to the mechanisation of horse-power by shifting their primary professional interest to companion animals; a type of veterinary patient generally valued for the unique emotional attachment of the owner, and not the productive capacity of the animal. The economic rationalisation of human fracture care and the ‚Äúsentimental‚ÄĚ transformation of veterinary orthopaedic expertise indicates how these specialists utilised increasingly convergent rhetorical arguments to justify the application of innovative fracture care technologies to their humans and animal patients. Keywords: Fracture care, Industrialisation, Veterinary History, Human/animal relation

    Search for the standard model Higgs boson decaying into two photons in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV

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    A search for a Higgs boson decaying into two photons is described. The analysis is performed using a dataset recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC from pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.8 inverse femtobarns. Limits are set on the cross section of the standard model Higgs boson decaying to two photons. The expected exclusion limit at 95% confidence level is between 1.4 and 2.4 times the standard model cross section in the mass range between 110 and 150 GeV. The analysis of the data excludes, at 95% confidence level, the standard model Higgs boson decaying into two photons in the mass range 128 to 132 GeV. The largest excess of events above the expected standard model background is observed for a Higgs boson mass hypothesis of 124 GeV with a local significance of 3.1 sigma. The global significance of observing an excess with a local significance greater than 3.1 sigma anywhere in the search range 110-150 GeV is estimated to be 1.8 sigma. More data are required to ascertain the origin of this excess.Comment: Submitted to Physics Letters

    Measurement of isolated photon production in pp and PbPb collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV