2,351 research outputs found

    Interacting clusters and their environment

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    Central regions of superclusters are the ideal places where to study cluster merging phenomena: in fact the accretion activity is enhanced, as predicted by the cosmological simulations. In this paper I review the case-study of the Shapley Concentration, aimed to understand the effect of major mergings on the intracluster medium and the galaxy population of the involved clusters.Comment: Invited talk IAU Colloquium 195 - "Outskirts of Galaxy Clusters: intense life in the suburbs". The figures here are available only in jpeg forma

    Abell 3560, a galaxy cluster at the edge of a major merging event

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    In this paper we study A3560, a rich cluster at the southern periphery of the A3558 complex, a chain of interacting clusters in the central part of the Shapley Concentration supercluster. From a ROSAT-PSPC map we find that the X-ray surface brightness distribution of A3560 is well described by two components, an elliptical King law and a more peaked and fainter structure, which has been modeled with a Gaussian. The main component, corresponding to the cluster, is elongated with the major axis pointing toward the A3558 complex. The second component, centered on the Dumb-bell galaxy which dominates the cluster, appears significantly offset (by about 0.15 Mpc) from the cluster X-ray centroid. From a Beppo-SAX observation we derive the radial temperature profile, finding that the temperature is constant (at kT~3.7 keV) up to 8 arcmin, corresponding to 0.3 Mpc: for larger distances, the temperature significantly drops to kT~1.7 keV. We analyze also temperature maps, dividing the cluster in 4 sectors and deriving the temperature profiles in each sector: we find that the temperature drop is more sudden in the sectors which point towards the A3558 complex. From VLA radio data, at 20 and 6 cm, we find a peculiar bright extended radio source (J1332-3308), composed by a core (centered on the northern component of the Dumb-bell galaxy), two lobes, a "filament" and a diffuse component. The morphology of the source could be interpreted either with a strong interaction of the radio source with the intracluster medium or with the model of intermittency of the central engine.Comment: 8 pages with encapsulated figures, A&A in pres

    Star Formation and AGN in the Core of the Shapley Supercluster: A VLA Survey of A3556, A3558, SC1327-312, SC1329-313, and A3562

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    The core of the Shapley supercluster (A3556, A3558, SC1327-312, SC1329-313, and A3562) is an ideal region in which to study the effects of cluster mergers on the activity of individual galaxies. This paper presents the most comprehensive radio continuum investigation of the region, relying on a 63-pointing mosaic obtained with the Very Large Array yielding an areal coverage of nearly 7 square degrees. The mosaic provides a typical sensitivity of about 80 uJy at a resolution of 16", enabling detection of galaxies with star formation rates as low as 1 solar mass per year. The radio data are complemented by optical imaging in B and R, producing a catalog of 210 radio-detected galaxies with m_R <= 17.36 (M_R <= -19). At least 104 of these radio-detected galaxies are members of the supercluster on the basis of public velocity measurements. Across the entire core of the supercluster, there appears to be a significant deficit of radio galaxies at intermediate optical magnitudes (M_R between -21 and -22). This deficit is offset somewhat by an increase in the frequency with which brighter galaxies (M_R less than -22) host radio sources. More dramatic is the highly significant increase in the probability for fainter galaxies (M_R between -20 and -21) in the vicinity of A3562 and SC1329-313 to be associated with radio emission. The radio and optical data for these sources strongly suggest that these active galaxies are powered by star formation. In conjunction with recent X-ray analysis, this is interpreted as young starbursts related to the recent merger of SC1329-313 with A3562 and the rest of the supercluster.Comment: Accepted by AJ; 50 pages, including 16 figures (for full resolution PDF, see http://mywebpages.comcast.net/nealamiller2/Shapley_pp.pdf

    XMM-Newton observation of the interacting cluster Abell 3528

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    We analyze the XMM dataset of the interacting cluster of galaxies Abell 3528 located westward in the core of the Shapley Supercluster, the largest concentration of mass in the nearby Universe. A3528 is formed by two interacting clumps (A3528-N at North and A3528-S at South) separated by 0.9 h70−1h_{70}^{-1} Mpc at redshift 0.053. XMM data describe these clumps as relaxed structure with an overall temperature of 4.14±0.094.14 \pm 0.09 and 4.29±0.074.29 \pm 0.07 keV in A3528-N and A3528-S, respectively, and a core cooler by a factor 1.4--1.5 and super-solar metal abundance in the inner 30 arcsec. These clumps are connected by a X-ray soft, bridge-like emission and present asymmetric surface brightness with significant excess in the North--West region of A3528-N and in the North--East area of A3528-S. However, we do not observe any evidence of shock heated gas, both in the surface brightness and in the temperature map. Considering also that the optical light distribution is more concentrated around A3528-N and makes A3528-S barely detectable, we do not find support to the originally suggested head-on pre-merging scenario and conclude that A3528 is in a off-axis post-merging phase, where the closest cores encounter happened about 1--2 Gyrs ago.Comment: 15 pages, 16 figures (10 in colors), accepted for publication on A&A. For a Poscript version with high resolution figures see http://www.mi.iasf.cnr.it/~gasta/www/a3528.htm

    Radio Properties of the Shapley Concentration. III. Merging Clusters in the A3558 Complex

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    We present the results of a 22 cm radio survey carried out with the A3558 complex, a chain formed by the merging ACO clusters A3556-A3558-A3562 and thetwo groups SC1327-312 and SC1323-313, located in the central region of the complex, a chain formed by the merging ACO clusters A3556-A3558-A3562 and the two groups SC1327-312 and SC1323-313, located in the central region of the Shapley Concentration. The purpose of our survey is to study the effects of cluster mergers on the statistical properties of radio galaxies and to investigate the connection between mergers and the presence of radio halos and relic sources. We found that the radio source counts in the A3558 complex are consistent with the background source counts. Furthermore, we found that no correlation exists between the local density and the radio source power, and that steep spectrum radio galaxies are not segregated in denser optical regions. The radio luminosity function for elliptical and S0 galaxies is significantly lower than that for cluster type galaxies and for those not selected to be in clusters at radio powers logP(1.4) > 22.5, implying that the probability of a galaxy becoming a radio source above this power limit is lower in the Shapley Concentration compared with any other environment. The detection of a head-tail source in the centre of A3562, coupled with careful inspection of the 20 cm NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and of 36 cm MOST observations, allowed us to spot two extended sources in the region between A3562 and SC1329-313, i.e. a candidate radio halo at the centre of A3562, and low brightness extended emission around a 14.96 magnitude Shapley galaxy.Comment: 18 pages, 14 figures. Accepted for publication on MNRA