6,959 research outputs found

    Latency Optimized Asynchronous Early Output Ripple Carry Adder based on Delay-Insensitive Dual-Rail Data Encoding

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    Asynchronous circuits employing delay-insensitive codes for data representation i.e. encoding and following a 4-phase return-to-zero protocol for handshaking are generally robust. Depending upon whether a single delay-insensitive code or multiple delay-insensitive code(s) are used for data encoding, the encoding scheme is called homogeneous or heterogeneous delay-insensitive data encoding. This article proposes a new latency optimized early output asynchronous ripple carry adder (RCA) that utilizes single-bit asynchronous full adders (SAFAs) and dual-bit asynchronous full adders (DAFAs) which incorporate redundant logic and are based on the delay-insensitive dual-rail code i.e. homogeneous data encoding, and follow a 4-phase return-to-zero handshaking. Amongst various RCA, carry lookahead adder (CLA), and carry select adder (CSLA) designs, which are based on homogeneous or heterogeneous delay-insensitive data encodings which correspond to the weak-indication or the early output timing model, the proposed early output asynchronous RCA that incorporates SAFAs and DAFAs with redundant logic is found to result in reduced latency for a dual-operand addition operation. In particular, for a 32-bit asynchronous RCA, utilizing 15 stages of DAFAs and 2 stages of SAFAs leads to reduced latency. The theoretical worst-case latencies of the different asynchronous adders were calculated by taking into account the typical gate delays of a 32/28nm CMOS digital cell library, and a comparison is made with their practical worst-case latencies estimated. The theoretical and practical worst-case latencies show a close correlation....Comment: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1704.0761

    Area/latency optimized early output asynchronous full adders and relative-timed ripple carry adders

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    This article presents two area/latency optimized gate level asynchronous full adder designs which correspond to early output logic. The proposed full adders are constructed using the delay-insensitive dual-rail code and adhere to the four-phase return-to-zero handshaking. For an asynchronous ripple carry adder (RCA) constructed using the proposed early output full adders, the relative-timing assumption becomes necessary and the inherent advantages of the relative-timed RCA are: (1) computation with valid inputs, i.e., forward latency is data-dependent, and (2) computation with spacer inputs involves a bare minimum constant reverse latency of just one full adder delay, thus resulting in the optimal cycle time. With respect to different 32-bit RCA implementations, and in comparison with the optimized strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output full adder designs, one of the proposed early output full adders achieves respective reductions in latency by 67.8, 12.3 and 6.1 %, while the other proposed early output full adder achieves corresponding reductions in area by 32.6, 24.6 and 6.9 %, with practically no power penalty. Further, the proposed early output full adders based asynchronous RCAs enable minimum reductions in cycle time by 83.4, 15, and 8.8 % when considering carry-propagation over the entire RCA width of 32-bits, and maximum reductions in cycle time by 97.5, 27.4, and 22.4 % for the consideration of a typical carry chain length of 4 full adder stages, when compared to the least of the cycle time estimates of various strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output asynchronous RCAs of similar size. All the asynchronous full adders and RCAs were realized using standard cells in a semi-custom design fashion based on a 32/28 nm CMOS process technology

    Asynchronous Early Output Dual-Bit Full Adders Based on Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Delay-Insensitive Data Encoding

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    This paper presents the designs of asynchronous early output dual-bit full adders without and with redundant logic (implicit) corresponding to homogeneous and heterogeneous delay-insensitive data encoding. For homogeneous delay-insensitive data encoding only dual-rail i.e. 1-of-2 code is used, and for heterogeneous delay-insensitive data encoding 1-of-2 and 1-of-4 codes are used. The 4-phase return-to-zero protocol is used for handshaking. To demonstrate the merits of the proposed dual-bit full adder designs, 32-bit ripple carry adders (RCAs) are constructed comprising dual-bit full adders. The proposed dual-bit full adders based 32-bit RCAs incorporating redundant logic feature reduced latency and area compared to their non-redundant counterparts with no accompanying power penalty. In comparison with the weakly indicating 32-bit RCA constructed using homogeneously encoded dual-bit full adders containing redundant logic, the early output 32-bit RCA comprising the proposed homogeneously encoded dual-bit full adders with redundant logic reports corresponding reductions in latency and area by 22.2% and 15.1% with no associated power penalty. On the other hand, the early output 32-bit RCA constructed using the proposed heterogeneously encoded dual-bit full adder which incorporates redundant logic reports respective decreases in latency and area than the weakly indicating 32-bit RCA that consists of heterogeneously encoded dual-bit full adders with redundant logic by 21.5% and 21.3% with nil power overhead. The simulation results obtained are based on a 32/28nm CMOS process technology

    Redundant Logic Insertion and Fault Tolerance Improvement in Combinational Circuits

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    This paper presents a novel method to identify and insert redundant logic into a combinational circuit to improve its fault tolerance without having to replicate the entire circuit as is the case with conventional redundancy techniques. In this context, it is discussed how to estimate the fault masking capability of a combinational circuit using the truth-cum-fault enumeration table, and then it is shown how to identify the logic that can introduced to add redundancy into the original circuit without affecting its native functionality and with the aim of improving its fault tolerance though this would involve some trade-off in the design metrics. However, care should be taken while introducing redundant logic since redundant logic insertion may give rise to new internal nodes and faults on those may impact the fault tolerance of the resulting circuit. The combinational circuit that is considered and its redundant counterparts are all implemented in semi-custom design style using a 32/28nm CMOS digital cell library and their respective design metrics and fault tolerances are compared

    Indicating Asynchronous Array Multipliers

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    Multiplication is an important arithmetic operation that is frequently encountered in microprocessing and digital signal processing applications, and multiplication is physically realized using a multiplier. This paper discusses the physical implementation of many indicating asynchronous array multipliers, which are inherently elastic and modular and are robust to timing, process and parametric variations. We consider the physical realization of many indicating asynchronous array multipliers using a 32/28nm CMOS technology. The weak-indication array multipliers comprise strong-indication or weak-indication full adders, and strong-indication 2-input AND functions to realize the partial products. The multipliers were synthesized in a semi-custom ASIC design style using standard library cells including a custom-designed 2-input C-element. 4x4 and 8x8 multiplication operations were considered for the physical implementations. The 4-phase return-to-zero (RTZ) and the 4-phase return-to-one (RTO) handshake protocols were utilized for data communication, and the delay-insensitive dual-rail code was used for data encoding. Among several weak-indication array multipliers, a weak-indication array multiplier utilizing a biased weak-indication full adder and the strong-indication 2-input AND function is found to have reduced cycle time and power-cycle time product with respect to RTZ and RTO handshaking for 4x4 and 8x8 multiplications. Further, the 4-phase RTO handshaking is found to be preferable to the 4-phase RTZ handshaking for achieving enhanced optimizations of the design metrics.Comment: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1903.0943

    Mathematical Estimation of Logical Masking Capability of Majority/Minority Gates Used in Nanoelectronic Circuits

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    In nanoelectronic circuit synthesis, the majority gate and the inverter form the basic combinational logic primitives. This paper deduces the mathematical formulae to estimate the logical masking capability of majority gates, which are used extensively in nanoelectronic digital circuit synthesis. The mathematical formulae derived to evaluate the logical masking capability of majority gates holds well for minority gates, and a comparison with the logical masking capability of conventional gates such as NOT, AND/NAND, OR/NOR, and XOR/XNOR is provided. It is inferred from this research work that the logical masking capability of majority/minority gates is similar to that of XOR/XNOR gates, and with an increase of fan-in the logical masking capability of majority/minority gates also increases