76 research outputs found

    Energy-aware scheduling: models and complexity results

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    International audienceThis paper presents several energy-aware scheduling algorithms whose design is optimized for different speed models. Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) is a model frequently used to reduce the energy consumption of a schedule, but it has negative effect on reliability. While the reliability of a schedule can sometimes be neglected (battery powered systems such as cell-phones or personal computers), it becomes extremely important when considering massively parallel architectures (petascale, exascale). In this work, we consider the problem of minimizing the energy within a makespan constraint. Additionally, we consider two models, one that takes into account a reliability constraint, and one that does not. We assume that the mapping is given, say by an ordered list of tasks to execute on each processor, and we aim at optimizing the energy consumption while enforcing a prescribed bound on the execution time. While it is not possible to change the allocation of a task, it is possible to change its speed. Rather than using a local approach such as backfilling, we consider the problem as a whole and study the impact of several speed variation models on its complexity. To improve the reliability of a schedule while reducing the energy consumption, we allow for the re-execution of some tasks. We present several results in that framework, as well as future research plans

    Reclaiming the energy of a schedule: models and algorithms

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    We consider a task graph to be executed on a set of processors. We assume that the mapping is given, say by an ordered list of tasks to execute on each processor, and we aim at optimizing the energy consumption while enforcing a prescribed bound on the execution time. While it is not possible to change the allocation of a task, it is possible to change its speed. Rather than using a local approach such as backfilling, we consider the problem as a whole and study the impact of several speed variation models on its complexity. For continuous speeds, we give a closed-form formula for trees and series-parallel graphs, and we cast the problem into a geometric programming problem for general directed acyclic graphs. We show that the classical dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) model with discrete modes leads to a NP-complete problem, even if the modes are regularly distributed (an important particular case in practice, which we analyze as the incremental model). On the contrary, the VDD-hopping model leads to a polynomial solution. Finally, we provide an approximation algorithm for the incremental model, which we extend for the general DVFS model.Comment: A two-page extended abstract of this work appeared as a short presentation in SPAA'2011, while the long version has been accepted for publication in "Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience

    Checkpointing algorithms and fault prediction

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    This paper deals with the impact of fault prediction techniques on checkpointing strategies. We extend the classical first-order analysis of Young and Daly in the presence of a fault prediction system, characterized by its recall and its precision. In this framework, we provide an optimal algorithm to decide when to take predictions into account, and we derive the optimal value of the checkpointing period. These results allow to analytically assess the key parameters that impact the performance of fault predictors at very large scale.Comment: Supported in part by ANR Rescue. Published in Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1207.693

    Periodicity is Optimal for Offline and Online Multi-Stage Adjoint Computations

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    We reexamine the work of Aupy et al. on optimal algorithms for multi-stageadjoint computations, where two levels of memories are available. Previousoptimal algorithm had a quadratic execution time. Here, with structuralarguments, namely periodicity, on the optimal solution, we provide an optimalalgorithm in constant time, with appropriate pre-processing. We also provide an asymptotically optimal algorithm for the online problem,when the adjoint graph size is not known before-hand. Again, this algorithmsrely on the proof that the optimal solution for multi-stage adjoint computationsis weakly periodic. We conjecture a closed-form formula for the period. Finally, we experimentallyaccess the convergence speed of the approximation ratio for the online problem,through simulations.Dans cet article, nous améliorons le travail de Aupy et al. sur les algorithmes à plusieurs étages optimaux pour le calcul d'adjoints, avec deux niveaux de mémoire disponibles. L'algorithme optimal précédent avait un temps d'exécution quadratique. Ici, avec une analyse de la solution optimale, nous proposons un algorithme optimal en temps constant, avec précalculs. Nous proposons également un algorithme asymptotiquement optimal pour la version en ligne du problème, lorsque la taille du graphe adjoint n'est pas connue à l'avance. Ces algorithmes reposent sur la preuve que les solutions optimales pour le calcul d'adjoint sont périodiques.Nous conjecturons la formule close de cette période. Enfin, nous évaluons la vitesse de convergence du ratio d'approximation pour le problème en ligne, à travers une campagne de simulations.a travers une campagne de simulations

    Approximation Algorithms for Energy, Reliability, and Makespan Optimization Problems

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    International audienceWe consider the problem of scheduling an application on a parallel computational platform. The application is a particular task graph, either a linear chain of tasks, or a set of independent tasks. The platform is made of identical processors, whose speed can be dynamically modified. It is also subject to failures: if a processor is slowed down to decrease the energy consumption, it has a higher chance to fail. Therefore, the scheduling problem requires us to re-execute or replicate tasks (i.e., execute twice the same task, either on the same processor, or on two distinct processors), in order to increase the reliability. It is a tri-criteria problem: the goal is to minimize the energy consumption, while enforcing a bound on the total execution time (the makespan), and a constraint on the reliability of each task. Our main contribution is to propose approximation algorithms for linear chains of tasks and independent tasks. For linear chains, we design a fully polynomial-time approximation scheme. However, we show that there exists no constant factor approximation algorithm for independent tasks, unless P=NP, and we propose in this case an approximation algorithm with a relaxation on the makespan constraint

    Co-Scheduling Algorithms for High-Throughput Workload Execution

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    This paper investigates co-scheduling algorithms for processing a set of parallel applications. Instead of executing each application one by one, using a maximum degree of parallelism for each of them, we aim at scheduling several applications concurrently. We partition the original application set into a series of packs, which are executed one by one. A pack comprises several applications, each of them with an assigned number of processors, with the constraint that the total number of processors assigned within a pack does not exceed the maximum number of available processors. The objective is to determine a partition into packs, and an assignment of processors to applications, that minimize the sum of the execution times of the packs. We thoroughly study the complexity of this optimization problem, and propose several heuristics that exhibit very good performance on a variety of workloads, whose application execution times model profiles of parallel scientific codes. We show that co-scheduling leads to to faster workload completion time and to faster response times on average (hence increasing system throughput and saving energy), for significant benefits over traditional scheduling from both the user and system perspectives

    Impact of fault prediction on checkpointing strategies

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    This paper deals with the impact of fault prediction techniques on checkpointing strategies. We extend the classical analysis of Young and Daly in the presence of a fault prediction system, which is characterized by its recall and its precision, and which provides either exact or window-based time predictions. We succeed in deriving the optimal value of the checkpointing period (thereby minimizing the waste of resource usage due to checkpoint overhead) in all scenarios. These results allow to analytically assess the key parameters that impact the performance of fault predictors at very large scale. In addition, the results of this analytical evaluation are nicely corroborated by a comprehensive set of simulations, thereby demonstrating the validity of the model and the accuracy of the results.Comment: 20 page

    Energy-aware scheduling under reliability and makespan constraints

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    International audienceWe consider a task graph mapped on a set of homogeneous processors. We aim at minimizing the energy consumption while enforcing two constraints: a prescribed bound on the execution time (or makespan), and a reliability threshold. Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is an approach frequently used to reduce the energy consumption of a schedule, but slowing down the execution of a task to save energy is decreasing the reliability of the execution. In this work, to improve the reliability of a schedule while reducing the energy consumption, we allow for the re-execution of some tasks. We assess the complexity of the tri-criteria scheduling problem (makespan, reliability, energy) of deciding which task to re-execute, and at which speed each execution of a task should be done, with two different speed models: either processors can have arbitrary speeds (continuous model), or a processor can run at a finite number of different speeds and change its speed during a computation (VDD model). We propose several novel tri-criteria scheduling heuristics under the continuous speed model, and we evaluate them through a set of simulations. The two best heuristics turn out to be very efficient and complementary

    Brief Announcement: Reclaiming the Energy of a Schedule, Models and Algorithms

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    Version longue publiée dans Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience.International audienceWe consider a task graph to be executed on a set of processors. We assume that the mapping is given, say by an ordered list of tasks to execute on each processor, and we aim at optimizing the energy consumption while enforcing a prescribed bound on the execution time. While it is not possible to change the allocation of a task, it is possible to change its speed. We study the complexity of the problem for different models: continuous speeds, discrete modes, distributed either arbitrarily or regularly, and VDD-hopping
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