24 research outputs found

    Dietary polyacetylenic oxylipins falcarinol and falcarindiol prevent inflammation and colorectal neoplastic transformation:A mechanistic and dose-response study in a rat model

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    Falcarinol (FaOH) and falcarindiol (FaDOH) are cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory polyacetylenic oxylipins, which are commonly found in the carrot family (Apiaceae). FaOH and FaDOH have previously demonstrated a chemopreventive effect on precursor lesions of colorectal cancer (CRC) in azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rats. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of action for the preventive effect of FaOH and FaDOH on colorectal precancerous lesions and to determine how this effect was dependent on dose. Gene expression studies performed by RT-qPCR of selected cancer biomarkers in tissue from biopsies of neoplastic tissue revealed that FaOH and FaDOH downregulated NF-κβ and its downstream inflammatory markers TNFα, IL-6, and COX-2. The dose-dependent anti-neoplastic effect of FaOH and FaDOH in AOM-induced rats was investigated in groups of 20 rats receiving a standard rat diet (SRD) supplemented with 0.16, 0.48, 1.4, 7 or 35 µg FaOH and FaDOH g−1 feed in the ratio 1:1 and 20 rats were controls receiving only SRD. Analysis of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) showed that the average number of small ACF (<7 crypts) and large ACF (>7 crypts) decreased with increasing dose of FaOH and FaDOH and that this inhibitory effect on early neoplastic formation of ACF was dose-dependent, which was also the case for the total number of macroscopic neoplasms. The CRC protective effects of apiaceous vegetables are mainly due to the inhibitory effect of FaOH and FaDOH on NF-κB and its downstream inflammatory markers, especially COX-2

    Multi-Color Single Particle Tracking with Quantum Dots

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    Quantum dots (QDs) have long promised to revolutionize fluorescence detection to include even applications requiring simultaneous multi-species detection at single molecule sensitivity. Despite the early promise, the unique optical properties of QDs have not yet been fully exploited in e. g. multiplex single molecule sensitivity applications such as single particle tracking (SPT). In order to fully optimize single molecule multiplex application with QDs, we have in this work performed a comprehensive quantitative investigation of the fluorescence intensities, fluorescence intensity fluctuations, and hydrodynamic radii of eight types of commercially available water soluble QDs. In this study, we show that the fluorescence intensity of CdSe core QDs increases as the emission of the QDs shifts towards the red but that hybrid CdSe/CdTe core QDs are less bright than the furthest red-shifted CdSe QDs. We further show that there is only a small size advantage in using blue-shifted QDs in biological applications because of the additional size of the water-stabilizing surface coat. Extending previous work, we finally also show that parallel four color multicolor (MC)-SPT with QDs is possible at an image acquisition rate of at least 25 Hz. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the lateral dynamics of a lipid, biotin-cap-DPPE, in the cellular plasma membrane of live cells using four different colors of QDs; QD565, QD605, QD655, and QD705 as labels

    Special Issue: Dynamics and Nano-Organization in Plasma Membranes

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    Cell membranes develop extraordinarily complex lipids and proteins geared to perform functions required by cells [...

    Aquaporin-3 and aquaporin-4 are sorted differently and separately in the trans-Golgi network

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    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are homologous proteins expressed in the basolateral plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells, where they mediate the exit pathway for apically reabsorbed water. Although both proteins are localized to the same plasma membrane domain, it is unknown if they are sorted together in the Golgi, or arrive in the same or different vesicles at the plasma membrane. We addressed these questions using high resolution deconvolution imaging, spinning disk and laser scanning confocal microscopy of cells expressing AQP3 and AQP4. AQP3 and AQP4 were observed mostly in separate post-Golgi carriers, and spinning disk microscopy showed that most of AQP3 and AQP4 were delivered to the plasma membrane in separate vesicles. In contrast, VSV-G and LDL-R, two well-characterized basolateral proteins, co-localized to a high degree in the same post-Golgi carriers, indicating that the differential sorting of AQP3 and AQP4 is specific and regulated. Significantly, a chimeric AQP3 containing the AQP4 cytoplasmic tails co-localized with AQP4 in post-Golgi vesicles. These results indicate that AQP3 and AQP4 are separated into different post-Golgi carriers based on different cytoplasmic domain sorting signals, and are then delivered separately to the plasma membrane