113 research outputs found

    Synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole functionalized hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) and its use as multifunctional anionic macroinitiator for diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A curing

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    Hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) has been modified by the addition of propargyl acrylate following a Michael addition reaction. On this polymer (PEI-yne) a copper (I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) has been performed to obtain a multifunctional triazole initiator (PEI-TA). After structural and thermal characterization, this polymer has been used in different proportions as anionic multifunctional macroinitiator in diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) homopolymerization. The curing process has been studied by calorimetry and the thermosets obtained have been thermally characterized and compared with thermosets prepared by using 1-methylimidazole (1-MI) as standard initiator. The electron microscopy inspection of the fracture surfaces of the new materials prepared shows the formation of submicrometer particles that should enhance toughness characteristics, changing smooth fracture surfaces in 1-MI initiated materials to multi-planar surface with tortuous and thicker cracks.Postprint (author's final draft

    Dendrimere als vielseitige, nano-skalige Objekte f├╝r biomimetische, biomedizinische und katalytische Fragestellungen

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    With their three-dimensional macromolecular structure and shape, and with their tuneable properties in both the inner and outer spheres, dendrimers are ideal model compounds in the nanometre range between 1 and 10 nm. The possibility to combine different properties within one macromolecule destines them for use in various high-end research fields such as medicine, pharmacy, biology, supramolecular chemistry, nanotechnology and material sciences. On the basis of their high end-group density and a compact, highly branched molecular structure, dendrimers are successfully investigated as carrier systems for active substances and metal ions (e.g. contrast agents for the visualisation of blood vessels), as templates for metal nanoparticles, as artificial enzymes with defined functions, and as materials for catalysis.Dendrimere sind aufgrund ihrer dreidimensionalen Makromolek├╝lstruktur und -form und ihrer steuerbaren Eigenschaften sowohl an der Oberfl├Ąche als auch im Molek├╝linneren ideale Modellverbindungen im Nanometerbereich ÔÇô sie sind zwischen 1 und 10 nm gro├č ÔÇô, die vorzugsweise in der Medizin, Pharmazie, Biologie, Supramolekularen Chemie, Nanotechnologie und den Materialwissenschaften eingesetzt werden. Aufgrund ihrer hohen Endgruppendichte und der kompakten, stark verzweigten Molek├╝lform werden Dendrimere unter anderem als Tr├Ągermaterialien und Transportsysteme f├╝r Wirkstoffe und Metallionen, zum Beispiel als Kontrastmittel zur Visualisierung von Organen und Blutgef├Ą├čen, als Template f├╝r metallische Nanopartikel, zur Erzeugung k├╝nstlicher Enzymfunktionen und in der Katalyse erfolgreich untersucht

    Photo-Cross-Linked Dual-Responsive Hollow Capsules Mimicking Cell Membrane for Controllable Cargo Post-Encapsulation and Release

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    Multifunctional and responsive hollow capsules are ideal candidates to establish highly sophisticated compartments mimicking cell membranes for controllable bio-inspired functions. For this purpose pH and temperature dual-responsive and photo-cross-linked hollow capsules, based on silica-templated layer-by-layer approach by using poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-blockpolymethacrylate) and polyallylamine, have been prepared to use them for the subsequent and easily available post-encapsulation process of proteinlike macromolecules at room temperature and pH 7.4 and their controllable release triggered by stimuli. The uptake and release properties of the hollow capsules for cargos are highly affected by changes in the external stimuli temperature (25, 37, or 45 ┬░C) and internal stimuli pH of the phosphate-containing buffer solution (5.5 or 7.4), by the degree of photo-cross-linking, and the size of cargo. The photo-cross-linked and dual stimuli-responsive hollow capsules with different membrane permeability can be considered as attractive material for mimicking cell functions triggered by controllable uptake and release of different up to 11 nm sized biomolecules

    Nanoparticles for Directed Immunomodulation: Mannose-Functionalized Glycodendrimers Induce Interleukin-8 in Myeloid Cell Lines

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    New therapeutic strategies for personalized medicine need to involve innovative pharmaceutical tools, for example, modular nanoparticles designed for direct immunomodulatory properties. We synthesized mannose-functionalized poly(propyleneimine) glycodendrimers with a novel architecture, where freely accessible mannose moieties are presented on poly(ethylene glycol)-based linkers embedded within an open-shell maltose coating. This design enhanced glycodendrimer bioactivity and led to complex functional effects in myeloid cells, with specific induction of interleukin-8 expression by mannose glycodendrimers detected in HL-60 and THP-1 cells. We concentrated on explaining the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon, which turned out to be different in both investigated cell lines: in HL-60 cells, transcriptional activation via AP-1 binding to the promoter predominated, while in THP-1 cells (which initially expressed less IL-8), induction was mediated mainly by mRNA stabilization. The success of directed immunomodulation, with synthetic design guided by assumptions about mannose-modified dendrimers as exogenous regulators of pro-inflammatory chemokine levels, opens new possibilities for designing bioactive nanoparticles. ┬ę 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society

    Sugar-Modified Poly(propylene imine) Dendrimers Stimulate the NF-╬║B Pathway in a Myeloid Cell Line

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    Purpose: Fourth-generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimers fully surface-modified by maltose (dense shell, PPI-m DS) were shown to be biocompatible in cellular models, which is important for their application in drug delivery. We decided to verify also their inherent bioactivity, including immunomodulatory activity, for potential clinical applications. We tested their effects on the THP-1 monocytic cell line model of innate immunity effectors. Methods: To estimate the cytotoxicity of dendrimers the reasazurin assay was performed. The expression level of NF-╬║B targets: IGFBP3, TNFAIP3 and TNF was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Measurement of NF-╬║B p65 translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus was conducted with a high-content screening platform and binding of NF-╬║B to a consensus DNA probe was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The cytokine assay was performed to measure protein concentration of TNFalpha and IL-4. Results: We found that PPI-m DS did not impact THP-1 viability and growth even at high concentrations (up to 100 ╬╝M). They also did not induce expression of genes for important signaling pathways: Jak/STAT, Keap1/Nrf2 and ER stress. However, high concentrations of 4th generation PPI-m DS (25ÔÇô100 ╬╝M), but not their 3rd generation counterparts, induced nuclear translocation of p65 NF-╬║B protein and its DNA-binding activity, leading to NF-╬║B-dependent increased expression of mRNA for NF-╬║B targets: IGFBP3, TNFAIP3 and TNF. However, no increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion was detected. Conclusion: We conclude that maltose-modified PPI dendrimers of specific size could exert a modest immunomodulatory effect, which may be advantageous in clinical applications (e.g. adjuvant effect in anti-cancer vaccines)
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