169 research outputs found

    Self-repairing Homomorphic Codes for Distributed Storage Systems

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    Erasure codes provide a storage efficient alternative to replication based redundancy in (networked) storage systems. They however entail high communication overhead for maintenance, when some of the encoded fragments are lost and need to be replenished. Such overheads arise from the fundamental need to recreate (or keep separately) first a copy of the whole object before any individual encoded fragment can be generated and replenished. There has been recently intense interest to explore alternatives, most prominent ones being regenerating codes (RGC) and hierarchical codes (HC). We propose as an alternative a new family of codes to improve the maintenance process, which we call self-repairing codes (SRC), with the following salient features: (a) encoded fragments can be repaired directly from other subsets of encoded fragments without having to reconstruct first the original data, ensuring that (b) a fragment is repaired from a fixed number of encoded fragments, the number depending only on how many encoded blocks are missing and independent of which specific blocks are missing. These properties allow for not only low communication overhead to recreate a missing fragment, but also independent reconstruction of different missing fragments in parallel, possibly in different parts of the network. We analyze the static resilience of SRCs with respect to traditional erasure codes, and observe that SRCs incur marginally larger storage overhead in order to achieve the aforementioned properties. The salient SRC properties naturally translate to low communication overheads for reconstruction of lost fragments, and allow reconstruction with lower latency by facilitating repairs in parallel. These desirable properties make self-repairing codes a good and practical candidate for networked distributed storage systems

    Self-Repairing Codes for Distributed Storage - A Projective Geometric Construction

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    Self-Repairing Codes (SRC) are codes designed to suit the need of coding for distributed networked storage: they not only allow stored data to be recovered even in the presence of node failures, they also provide a repair mechanism where as little as two live nodes can be contacted to regenerate the data of a failed node. In this paper, we propose a new instance of self-repairing codes, based on constructions of spreads coming from projective geometry. We study some of their properties to demonstrate the suitability of these codes for distributed networked storage.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Cooperation and Competition when Bidding for Complex Projects: Centralized and Decentralized Perspectives

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    To successfully complete a complex project, be it a construction of an airport or of a backbone IT system, agents (companies or individuals) must form a team having required competences and resources. A team can be formed either by the project issuer based on individual agents' offers (centralized formation); or by the agents themselves (decentralized formation) bidding for a project as a consortium---in that case many feasible teams compete for the contract. We investigate rational strategies of the agents (what salary should they ask? with whom should they team up?). We propose concepts to characterize the stability of the winning teams and study their computational complexity