2,345 research outputs found

    Wrist Accelerometer Cut Points for Classifying Sedentary Behavior in Children.

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    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine the validity and accuracy of wrist accelerometers for classifying sedentary behavior (SB) in children. METHODS: Fifty-seven children (5-8 and 9-12 yr) completed an ~170-min protocol, including 15 semistructured activities and transitions. Nine ActiGraph (GT3X+) and two GENEActiv wrist cut points were evaluated. Direct observation was the criterion measure. The accuracy of wrist cut points was compared with that achieved by the ActiGraph hip cut point (≤25 counts per 15 s) and the thigh-mounted activPAL3. Analyses included equivalence testing, Bland-Altman procedures, and area under the receiver operating curve (ROC-AUC). RESULTS: The most accurate ActiGraph wrist cut points (Kim; vector magnitude, ≤3958 counts per 60 s; vertical axis, ≤1756 counts per 60 s) demonstrated good classification accuracy (ROC-AUC = 0.85-0.86) and accurately estimated SB time in 5-8 yr (equivalence P = 0.02; mean bias = 4.1%, limits of agreement = -20.1% to 28.4%) and 9-12 yr (equivalence P 0.05) and classification accuracy (ROC-AUC = 0.79-0.80) was lower than for ActiGraph hip and activPAL3. CONCLUSION: The most accurate SB ActiGraph (Kim) and GENEActiv (Schaefer) wrist cut points can be applied in children with similar confidence as the ActiGraph hip cut point (≤25 counts per 15 s), although activPAL3 was generally more accurate.This study was funded by the National Heart Foundation of Australia (G11S5975). DPC is supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DE140101588). ADO is supported by a National Heart Foundation of Australia Career Development Fellowship (CR11S 6099). TH is funded by a National Health and Medical Research Council Early Career Fellowship (APP1070571). The work of UE and SB is funded by the UK Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/3). ST is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council Centre of Research Excellence on Sitting Time and Chronic Disease Prevention (APP1057608)

    Trace-gas metabolic versatility of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris

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    The climate-active gas methane is generated both by biological processes and by thermogenic decomposition of fossil organic material, which forms methane and short-chain alkanes, principally ethane, propane and butane1, 2. In addition to natural sources, environments are exposed to anthropogenic inputs of all these gases from oil and gas extraction and distribution. The gases provide carbon and/or energy for a diverse range of microorganisms that can metabolize them in both anoxic3 and oxic zones. Aerobic methanotrophs, which can assimilate methane, have been considered to be entirely distinct from utilizers of short-chain alkanes, and studies of environments exposed to mixtures of methane and multi-carbon alkanes have assumed that disparate groups of microorganisms are responsible for the metabolism of these gases. Here we describe the mechanism by which a single bacterial strain, Methylocella silvestris, can use methane or propane as a carbon and energy source, documenting a methanotroph that can utilize a short-chain alkane as an alternative to methane. Furthermore, during growth on a mixture of these gases, efficient consumption of both gases occurred at the same time. Two soluble di-iron centre monooxygenase (SDIMO) gene clusters were identified and were found to be differentially expressed during bacterial growth on these gases, although both were required for efficient propane utilization. This report of a methanotroph expressing an additional SDIMO that seems to be uniquely involved in short-chain alkane metabolism suggests that such metabolic flexibility may be important in many environments where methane and short-chain alkanes co-occur

    Validation of the SenseWear Mini activity monitor in 5-12-year-old children.

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    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to validate SenseWear Mini software algorithm versions 2.2 (SW2.2) and 5.2 (SW5.2) for estimating energy expenditure (EE) in children. DESIGN: Laboratory-based validation study. METHODS: 57 children aged 5-12 y completed a protocol involving 15 semi-structured sedentary (SED), light-intensity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity (MVPA) physical activities. EE was estimated using portable indirect calorimetry (IC). The accuracy of EE estimates (kcal·min-1) from SW2.2 and SW5.2 were examined at the group level and individual level using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), Bland-Altman plots and equivalence testing. RESULTS: MAPE values were lower for SW5.2 (30.1±10.7%) than for SW2.2 (44.0±6.2%). Although mean differences for SW5.2 were smaller than for SW2.2 during SED (-0.23±0.22 vs. -0.61±0.20kcal·min-1), LPA (-0.69±0.76 vs. -1.07±0.46kcal·min-1) and MVPA (-2.22±1.15 vs. -2.57±1.15kcal·min-1), limits of agreement did not decrease for the updated algorithms. For all activities, SW2.2 and SW5.2 were not equivalent to IC (p>0.05). Errors increased with increasing intensity. CONCLUSION: The current SenseWear Mini algorithms SW5.2 underestimated EE. The overall improved accuracy for SW5.2 was not accompanied with improved accuracy at the individual level and EE estimates were not equivalent to IC.This study was funded by the National Heart Foundation of Australia (G11S5975).This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.04.01

    Understanding the role of growth factors in modulating stem cell tenogenesis

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    Current treatments for tendon injuries often fail to fully restore joint biomechanics leading to the recurrence of symptoms, and thus resulting in a significant health problem with a relevant social impact worldwide. Cell-based approaches involving the use of stem cells might enable tailoring a successful tendon regeneration outcome. As growth factors (GFs) powerfully regulate the cell biological response, their exogenous addition can further stimulate stem cells into the tenogenic lineage, which might eventually depend on stem cells source. In the present study we investigate the tenogenic differentiation potential of human- amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with several GFs associated to tendon development and healing; namely, EGF, bFGF, PDGF-BB and TGF-β1. Stem cells response to biochemical stimuli was studied by screening of tendon-related genes (collagen type I, III, decorin, tenascin C and scleraxis) and proteins found in tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) (Collagen I, III, and Tenascin C). Despite the fact that GFs did not seem to influence the synthesis of tendon ECM proteins, EGF and bFGF influenced the expression of tendon-related genes in hAFSCs, while EGF and PDGF-BB stimulated the genetic expression in hASCs. Overall results on cellular alignment morphology, immunolocalization and PCR analysis indicated that both stem cell source can be biochemically induced towards tenogenic commitment, validating the potential of hASCs and hAFSCs for tendon regeneration strategies.Authors thank the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) for the research project BIBS (PTDC/CVT/102972/2008) and for the post-doc fellowship grant: SFRH/BPD/86775/2012. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

    Haptoglobin Phenotype, Preeclampsia Risk and the Efficacy of Vitamin C and E Supplementation to Prevent Preeclampsia in a Racially Diverse Population

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    Haptoglobin's (Hp) antioxidant and pro-angiogenic properties differ between the 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 phenotypes. Hp phenotype affects cardiovascular disease risk and treatment response to antioxidant vitamins in some non-pregnant populations. We previously demonstrated that preeclampsia risk was doubled in white Hp 2-1 women, compared to Hp 1-1 women. Our objectives were to determine whether we could reproduce this finding in a larger cohort, and to determine whether Hp phenotype influences lack of efficacy of antioxidant vitamins in preventing preeclampsia and serious complications of pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH). This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in which 10,154 low-risk women received daily vitamin C and E, or placebo, from 9-16 weeks gestation until delivery. Hp phenotype was determined in the study prediction cohort (n = 2,393) and a case-control cohort (703 cases, 1,406 controls). The primary outcome was severe PAH, or mild or severe PAH with elevated liver enzymes, elevated serum creatinine, thrombocytopenia, eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, medically indicated preterm birth or perinatal death. Preeclampsia was a secondary outcome. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression. Sampling weights were used to reduce bias from an overrepresentation of women with preeclampsia or the primary outcome. There was no relationship between Hp phenotype and the primary outcome or preeclampsia in Hispanic, white/other or black women. Vitamin supplementation did not reduce the risk of the primary outcome or preeclampsia in women of any phenotype. Supplementation increased preeclampsia risk (odds ratio 3.30; 95% confidence interval 1.61-6.82, p<0.01) in Hispanic Hp 2-2 women. Hp phenotype does not influence preeclampsia risk, or identify a subset of women who may benefit from vitamin C and E supplementation to prevent preeclampsia

    In vitro comparison of the effects of rough and polished stem surface finish on pressure generation in cemented hip arthroplasty

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    Background and purpose High pressures around implants can cause bone lysis and loosening. We investigated how pressures are generated around cemented femoral stems

    Exercise therapy in adults with serious mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: Individuals with serious mental illness are at a higher risk of physical ill health. Mortality rates are at least twice those of the general population with higher levels of cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, diabetes, and respiratory illness. Although genetics may have a role in the physical health problems of these patients, lifestyle and environmental factors such as levels of smoking, obesity, poor diet, and low levels of physical activity also play a prominent part.&lt;p&gt;&lt;/p&gt; Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing the effect of exercise interventions on individuals with serious mental illness.&lt;p&gt;&lt;/p&gt; Methods: Searches were made in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Biological Abstracts on Ovid, and The Cochrane Library (January 2009, repeated January 2013) through to February 2013.&lt;p&gt;&lt;/p&gt; Results: Eight RCTs were identified in the systematic search. Six compared exercise versus usual care. One study assessed the effect of a cycling programme versus muscle strengthening and toning exercises. The final study compared the effect of adding specific exercise advice and motivational skills to a simple walking programme. Exercise programmes were noted by their heterogeneity in terms of the type of exercise intervention, setting, and outcome measures. The review found that exercise improved levels of exercise activity (n=13, standard mean difference [SMD] 1.81, CI 0.44 to 3.18, p = 0.01). No beneficial effect was found on negative (n = 84, SMD = -0.54, CI -1.79 to 0.71, p = 0.40) or positive symptoms of schizophrenia (n = 84, SMD = -1.66, CI -3.78 to 0.45, p = 0.12). No change was found on body mass index compared with usual care (n= 151, SMD = -0.24, CI -0.56 to 0.08, p = 0.14), or body weight (n = 77, SMD = 0.13, CI -0.32 to 0.58, p = 0.57). No beneficial effect was found on anxiety and depressive symptoms (n = 94, SMD = -0.26, CI -0.91 to 0.39, p = 0.43), or quality of life in respect of physical and mental domains. One RCT measured the effect of exercise on exercise intensity, attendance, and persistence at a programme. No significant effect was found on these measures.&lt;p&gt;&lt;/p&gt; Conclusions: This systematic review showed that exercise therapies can lead to a modest increase in levels of exercise activity but overall there was no noticeable change for symptoms of mental health, body mass index, and body weight.&lt;p&gt;&lt;/p&gt
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