2 research outputs found

    The uncharted territory of host-pathogen interaction in tuberculosis

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    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) effectively manipulates the host processes to establish the deadly respiratory disease, Tuberculosis (TB). M.tb has developed key mechanisms to disrupt the host cell health to combat immune responses and replicate efficaciously. M.tb antigens such as ESAT-6, 19kDa lipoprotein, Hip1, and Hsp70 destroy the integrity of cell organelles (Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleus, Phagosomes) or delay innate/adaptive cell responses. This is followed by the induction of cellular stress responses in the host. Such cells can either undergo various cell death processes such as apoptosis or necrosis, or mount effective immune responses to clear the invading pathogen. Further, to combat the infection progression, the host secretes extracellular vesicles such as exosomes to initiate immune signaling. The exosomes can contain M.tb as well as host cell-derived peptides that can act as a double-edged sword in the immune signaling event. The host-symbiont microbiota produces various metabolites that are beneficial for maintaining healthy tissue microenvironment. In juxtaposition to the above-mentioned mechanisms, M.tb dysregulates the gut and respiratory microbiome to support its replication and dissemination process. The above-mentioned interconnected host cellular processes of Immunometabolism, Cellular stress, Host Microbiome, and Extracellular vesicles are less explored in the realm of exploration of novel Host-directed therapies for TB. Therefore, this review highlights the intertwined host cellular processes to control M.tb survival and showcases the important factors that can be targeted for designing efficacious therapy

    Biapenem, a Carbapenem Antibiotic, Elicits Mycobacteria Specific Immune Responses and Reduces the Recurrence of Tuberculosis

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    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis (TB) still tops the list of global health burdens even after COVID-19. However, it will sooner transcend the current pandemic due to the prevailing risk of reactivation of latent TB in immunocompromised individuals. The indiscriminate misuse and overuse of antibiotics have resulted in the emergence of deadly drug-resistant variants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). This study aims to characterize the functionality of the carbapenem antibiotic-Biapenem (BPM) in generating long-lasting immunity against TB. BPM treatment significantly boosted the activation status of the innate immune arm-macrophages by augmenting p38 signaling. Macrophages further primed and activated the adaptive immune cells CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the lung and spleen of the infected mice model. Furthermore, BPM treatment significantly amplified the polarization of T lymphocytes toward inflammatory subsets, such as Th1 and Th17. The treatment also helped generate a long-lived central memory T-cell subset. The generation of central memory T lymphocyte subset upon BPM treatment in the murine model led to a significant curtailing in the recurrence of TB due to reactivation and reinfection. These results suggest the potentiality of BPM as a potent adjunct immunomodulator to improve host defense against M.tb by enriching long-term protective memory cells. IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) tops the list of infectious killers around the globe. The emergence of drug-resistant variants of M.tb has been a major hindrance toward realizing the “END TB” goal. Drug resistance has amplified the global burden toward the quest for novel drug molecules targeting M.tb. Host-directed therapy (HDT) offers a lucrative alternative to tackle emerging drug resistance and disease relapse by strengthening the host’s immunity. Through our present study, we have tried to characterize the functionality of the carbapenem antibiotic-Biapenem (BPM). BPM treatment significantly augmented long-lasting immunity against TB by boosting the innate and adaptive immune arms. The generation of long-lived central memory T lymphocyte subset significantly improved the disease outcome and provided sterilizing immunity in the murine model of TB. The present investigation's encouraging results have helped us depict BPM as a potent adjunct immunomodulator for treating TB