214 research outputs found

    Density pattern in supercritical flow of liquid He-4

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    A density functional theory is used to investigate the instability arising in superfluid 4^4He as it flows at velocity u just above the Landau critical velocity of rotons v_c. Confirming an early theoretical prediction by one of us [JETP Lett. 39, 511 (1984)], we find that a stationary periodic modulation of the density occurs, with amplitude proportional to (u-v_c)^{1/2} and wave vector equal to the roton wave vector. This density pattern is studied for supercritical flow both in bulk helium and in a channel of nanometer cross-section.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figures. Submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Probing vortices in 4He nanodroplets

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    We present static and dynamical properties of linear vortices in 4He droplets obtained from Density Functional calculations. By comparing the adsorption properties of different atomic impurities embedded in pure droplets and in droplets where a quantized vortex has been created, we suggest that Ca atoms should be the dopant of choice to detect vortices by means of spectroscopic experiments.Comment: Typeset using Revtex4, 4 pages and 2 Postscript file

    Anomalous low temperature specific heat of He-3 inside nanotube bundles

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    Helium atoms and hydrogen molecules can be strongly bound inside interstitial channels within bundles of carbon nanotubes. An exploration of the low energy and low temperature properties of He-3 atoms is presented here. Recent study of the analogous He-4 system has shown that the effect of heterogeneity is to yield a density of states N(E) that is qualitatively different from the one-dimensional (1D) form of N(E) that would occur for an ideal set of identical channels. In particular, the functional form of N(E) is that of a 4D gas near the very lowest energies and a 2D gas at somewhat higher energies. Similar behavior is found here for He-3. The resulting thermodynamic behavior of this fermi system is computed, yielding an anomalous form of the heat capacity and its dependence on coverage.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figure

    Density functional theory modeling of vortex shedding in superfluid He-4

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    Formation of vortex rings around moving spherical objects in superfluid He-4 at 0 K is modeled by time-dependent density functional theory. The simulations provide detailed information of the microscopic events that lead to vortex ring emission through characteristic observables such as liquid current circulation, drag force, and hydrodynamic mass. A series of simulations were performed to determine velocity thresholds for the onset of dissipation as a function of the sphere radius up to 1.8 nm and at external pressures of zero and 1 bar. The threshold was observed to decrease with the sphere radius and increase with pressure thus showing that the onset of dissipation does not involve roton emission events (Landau critical velocity), but rather vortex emission (Feynman critical velocity), which is also confirmed by the observed periodic response of the hydrodynamic observables as well as visualization of the liquid current circulation. An empirical model, which considers the ratio between the boundary layer kinetic and vortex ring formation energies, is presented for extrapolating the current results to larger length scales. The calculated critical velocity value at zero pressure for a sphere that mimics an electron bubble is in good agreement with the previous experimental observations at low temperatures. The stability of the system against symmetry breaking was linked to its ability to excite quantized Kelvin waves around the vortex rings during the vortex shedding process. At high vortex ring emission rates, the downstream dynamics showed complex vortex ring fission and reconnection events that appear similar to those seen in previous Gross-Pitaevskii theory-based calculations, and which mark the onset of turbulent behavior.Comment: 23 pages, 7 figure

    Alkali Atoms Attached to 3^3He Nanodroplets

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    We have experimentally studied the electronic 3p−>3s3p-> 3s excitation of Na atoms attached to 3^3He droplets by means of laser-induced fluorescence as well as beam depletion spectroscopy. From the similarities of the spectra (width/shift of absorption lines) with these of Na on 4^4He droplets, we conclude that sodium atoms reside in a ``dimple'' on the droplet surface and that superfluid-related effects are negligible. The experimental results are supported by Density Functional calculations at zero temperature, which confirm the surface location of Na, K and Rb atoms on 3^3He droplets. In the case of Na, the calculated shift of the excitation spectra for the two isotopes is in good agreement with the experimental data.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, sent to JLT

    Shock waves in strongly interacting Fermi gas from time-dependent density functional calculations

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    Motivated by a recent experiment [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 150401 (2011)] we simulate the collision between two clouds of cold Fermi gas at unitarity conditions by using an extended Thomas-Fermi density functional. At variance with the current interpretation of the experiments, where the role of viscosity is emphasized, we find that a quantitative agreement with the experimental observation of the dynamics of the cloud collisions is obtained within our superfluid effective hydrodynamics approach, where density variations during the collision are controlled by a purely dispersive quantum gradient term. We also suggest different initial conditions where dispersive density ripples can be detected with the available experimental spatial resolution.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Dynamics of liquid He-4 in confined geometries from Time-Dependent Density Functional calculations

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    We present numerical results obtained from Time-Dependent Density Functional calculations of the dynamics of liquid He-4 in different environments characterized by geometrical confinement. The time-dependent density profile and velocity field of He-4 are obtained by means of direct numerical integration of the non-linear Schrodinger equation associated with a phenomenological energy functional which describes accurately both the static and dynamic properties of bulk liquid He-4. Our implementation allows for a general solution in 3-D (i.e. no symmetries are assumed in order to simplify the calculations). We apply our method to study the real-time dynamics of pure and alkali-doped clusters, of a monolayer film on a weakly attractive surface and a nano-droplet spreading on a solid surface.Comment: q 1 tex file + 9 Ps figure
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