79 research outputs found

    Radijus utjecaja oborine nad podru─Źjem monsuna u Indiji

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    The paper describes an analysis of rain gauge data to determine an appropriate radius of influence to use for the objective analysis of rainfall over Indian monsoon region. The correlation co-efficient (CC) of rainfall between rain gauges in discrete distance intervals is computed, and the distance at which CC falls to 0.3 is chosen as the radius of rainfall influence. The method is applied for the monthly mean rainfall observations for June, July and August of Indian summer monsoon 2001. The method is also tested for a few case studies in relation to varying geographical and synoptic situations. The study shows that the radius of influence of rainfall over Indian region, in general, is around 200 km, but it has certain day to day variations depending on the prevailing synoptic conditions. The finding of the study is expected to be very useful for the objective analysis of rainfall over Indian region.Ova studija prikazuje analizu mjerenja ki┼íomjernih postaja radi odre─Ĺivanja odgovaraju─çeg radijusa utjecaja za potrebe objektivne analize oborine nad podru─Źjem monsuna u Indiji. Ra─Źunao se koeficijent korelacije oborine izme─Ĺu ki┼íomjernih postaja na diskretnim intervalima te je koeficijent korelacije od 0.3 odabran kao radijus oborinskog utjecaja. Metoda je primijenjena na srednje mjese─Źne vrijednosti oborine za razdoblje lipanj-kolovoz 2001. tijekom ljetnog monsuna u Indiji. Ova je metoda tako─Ĺer testirana na nekoliko odabranih slu─Źajeva zbog variranja geografskih i sinopti─Źkih situacija. Studija pokazuje da je radijus utjecaja oborine nad podru─Źjem monsuna u Indiji op─çenito oko 200 km, iako postoji odre─Ĺena dnevna varijabilnost koja ovisi o prevladavaju─çim sinopti─Źkim uvjetima. Rezultati ove studije korisni su za potrebe objektivne analize oborine nad podru─Źjem Indij

    Vefrifikacija prognoza oborine WRF modelom nad Indijom tijekom monsuna 2010.: CRA metoda

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    The WRF model forecast during monsoon season 2010 has been verified with daily observed gridded rainfall analysis with 0.5┬░ spatial resolution. First- ly, the conventional neighborhood technique has been deployed to calculate common scores like mean error and root mean square error. Along with, widely used two categorical skill scores have been computed for seven different rainfall thresholds. The scores only found the general nature of the model performance and depicted the degradation of forecast accuracy exceeding moderate rainfall category of 7.5 mm. The object oriented Contiguous Rain Area method also has been considered for the verification of rainfall forecasts to gather more informa- tion about model performance. The method similarly has endorsed that the performance of the model degrades along with the increase in rainfall amount. But at the same time, the decomposition of mean square error has pointed out that the maximum error occurred due the shifting of rain object or event in the forecast compared to observation. The volume error contributes less as compared to pattern error in 24 hour forecasts irrespective of rainfall thresholds. But in 48 hour forecasts, their values are comparable and change along with rainfall threshold. During whole monsoon season, all contiguous rain areas in model forecasts have been searched over observed rainfall analyses applying best-fit criteria. For contiguous rain areas below 50 mm more than 70 percent match was found.Prognoza oborine dobivena modelom WRF za monsunsku sezonu 2010. verificirana je kori┼ítenjem analize dnevne opa┼żene oborine u mre┼żi prostorne rezolucije od 0,5┬░. Odre─Ĺeni su jednostavni, standardni pokazatelji poput srednje pogre┼íke i srednje kvadratne pogre┼íke, a tako─Ĺer i dva uobi─Źajena kategori─Źka pokazatelja uspje┼ínosti koji su izra─Źunati za sedam razli─Źitih pragova oborine. Ti pokazatelji su omogu─çili op─çenitu procjenu uspje┼ínosti modela te su ukazali na smanjenu pouzdanost za kategorije oborine ve─çe od 7,5 mm. kako bi se detaljnije procijenila uspje┼ínost modela, verifikacija prognoze oborine je tako─Ĺer napravljena pomo─çu objektno orijentirane metode bliskih oborinskih podru─Źja CRA (Contiguous Rain Area). Ova metoda je tako─Ĺer ukazala na smanjenje uspje┼ínosti modela s pove─çanjem koli─Źine oborine. Me─Ĺutim, dekompozicija srednje kvadratne pogre┼íke je ukazala da najve─çu pogre┼íku uzrokuje pomak prognoziranog oborinskog podru─Źja ili doga─Ĺaja u odnosu na izmjerene vrijednosti. Za 24-satne prognoze volumna pogre┼íka doprinosi manje u usporedbi s prostornom pogre┼íkom, neovisno o pragovima oborine. Me─Ĺutim, za 48-satne prognoze iznosi volumne i prostorne pogre┼íke su usporedivi te rastu s pragom oborine. Susjedna oborinska podru─Źja za prognoziranu oborinu su odre─Ĺena obzirom na izmjerenu oborinu primjenom kriterija nabolje podudarnosti. Postupak je proveden za cijelu monsunsku sezonu. Za podru─Źja s koli─Źinom oborine manjom od 50 mm podudaranje je ve─çe od 70%

    Vefrifikacija prognoza oborine WRF modelom nad Indijom tijekom monsuna 2010.: CRA metoda

    Get PDF
    The WRF model forecast during monsoon season 2010 has been verified with daily observed gridded rainfall analysis with 0.5┬░ spatial resolution. First- ly, the conventional neighborhood technique has been deployed to calculate common scores like mean error and root mean square error. Along with, widely used two categorical skill scores have been computed for seven different rainfall thresholds. The scores only found the general nature of the model performance and depicted the degradation of forecast accuracy exceeding moderate rainfall category of 7.5 mm. The object oriented Contiguous Rain Area method also has been considered for the verification of rainfall forecasts to gather more informa- tion about model performance. The method similarly has endorsed that the performance of the model degrades along with the increase in rainfall amount. But at the same time, the decomposition of mean square error has pointed out that the maximum error occurred due the shifting of rain object or event in the forecast compared to observation. The volume error contributes less as compared to pattern error in 24 hour forecasts irrespective of rainfall thresholds. But in 48 hour forecasts, their values are comparable and change along with rainfall threshold. During whole monsoon season, all contiguous rain areas in model forecasts have been searched over observed rainfall analyses applying best-fit criteria. For contiguous rain areas below 50 mm more than 70 percent match was found.Prognoza oborine dobivena modelom WRF za monsunsku sezonu 2010. verificirana je kori┼ítenjem analize dnevne opa┼żene oborine u mre┼żi prostorne rezolucije od 0,5┬░. Odre─Ĺeni su jednostavni, standardni pokazatelji poput srednje pogre┼íke i srednje kvadratne pogre┼íke, a tako─Ĺer i dva uobi─Źajena kategori─Źka pokazatelja uspje┼ínosti koji su izra─Źunati za sedam razli─Źitih pragova oborine. Ti pokazatelji su omogu─çili op─çenitu procjenu uspje┼ínosti modela te su ukazali na smanjenu pouzdanost za kategorije oborine ve─çe od 7,5 mm. kako bi se detaljnije procijenila uspje┼ínost modela, verifikacija prognoze oborine je tako─Ĺer napravljena pomo─çu objektno orijentirane metode bliskih oborinskih podru─Źja CRA (Contiguous Rain Area). Ova metoda je tako─Ĺer ukazala na smanjenje uspje┼ínosti modela s pove─çanjem koli─Źine oborine. Me─Ĺutim, dekompozicija srednje kvadratne pogre┼íke je ukazala da najve─çu pogre┼íku uzrokuje pomak prognoziranog oborinskog podru─Źja ili doga─Ĺaja u odnosu na izmjerene vrijednosti. Za 24-satne prognoze volumna pogre┼íka doprinosi manje u usporedbi s prostornom pogre┼íkom, neovisno o pragovima oborine. Me─Ĺutim, za 48-satne prognoze iznosi volumne i prostorne pogre┼íke su usporedivi te rastu s pragom oborine. Susjedna oborinska podru─Źja za prognoziranu oborinu su odre─Ĺena obzirom na izmjerenu oborinu primjenom kriterija nabolje podudarnosti. Postupak je proveden za cijelu monsunsku sezonu. Za podru─Źja s koli─Źinom oborine manjom od 50 mm podudaranje je ve─çe od 70%

    The cosmological background of vector modes

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    We investigate the spectrum of vector modes today which is generated at second order by density perturbations. The vector mode background that is generated by structure formation is small but in principle it contributes to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, to redshift-space distortions and to weak lensing. We recover, clarify and extend previous results, and explain carefully why no vorticity is generated in the fluid at second order. The amplitude of the induced vector mode in the metric is around 1% that of the first-order scalars on small scales. We also calculate the power spectrum and the energy density of the vector part of the shear at second order.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures. Version to appear in JCAP; minor improvements and additional reference

    Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated poliovirus vaccine when given with measlesÔÇôrubella combined vaccine and yellow fever vaccine and when given via diff erent administration routes: a phase 4, randomised, non-inferiority trial in The Gambia

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    Background The introduction of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) represents a crucial step in the polio eradication endgame. This trial examined the safety and immunogenicity of IPV given alongside the measlesÔÇôrubella and yellow fever vaccines at 9 months and when given as a full or fractional dose using needle and syringe or disposable-syringe jet injector. Methods We did a phase 4, randomised, non-inferiority trial at three periurban government clinics in west Gambia. Infants aged 9ÔÇô10 months who had already received oral poliovirus vaccine were randomly assigned to receive the IPV, measlesÔÇôrubella, and yellow fever vaccines, singularly or in combination. Separately, IPV was given as a full intramuscular or fractional intradermal dose by needle and syringe or disposable-syringe jet injector at a second visit. The primary outcomes were seroprevalence rates for poliovirus 4ÔÇô6 weeks post-vaccination and the rate of seroconversion between baseline and post-vaccination serum samples for measles, rubella, and yellow fever; and the post-vaccination antibody titres generated against each component of the vaccines. We did a per-protocol analysis with a non-inferiority margin of 10% for poliovirus seroprevalence and measles, rubella, and yellow fever seroconversion, and (Ôůô) log2 for log2-transformed antibody titres. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01847872. Findings Between July 10, 2013, and May 8, 2014, we assessed 1662 infants for eligibility, of whom 1504 were enrolled into one of seven groups for vaccine interference and one of four groups for fractional dosing and alternative route of administration. The rubella and yellow fever antibody titres were reduced by co-administration but the seroconversion rates achieved non-inferiority in both cases (rubella, ÔÇô4┬Ě5% [95% CI ÔÇô9┬Ě5 to ÔÇô0┬Ě1]; yellow fever, 1┬Ě2% [ÔÇô2┬Ě9 to 5┬Ě5]). Measles and poliovirus responses were unaff ected (measles, 6┬Ě8% [95% CI ÔÇô1┬Ě4 to 14┬Ě9]; poliovirus serotype 1, 1┬Ě6% [ÔÇô6┬Ě7 to 4┬Ě7]; serotype 2, 0┬Ě0% [ÔÇô2┬Ě1 to 2┬Ě1]; serotype 3, 0┬Ě0% [ÔÇô3┬Ě8 to 3┬Ě9]). Poliovirus seroprevalence was universally high (>97%) after vaccination, but the antibody titres generated by fractional intradermal doses of IPV did not achieve non-inferiority compared with full dose. The number of infants who seroconverted or had a four-fold rise in titres was also lower by the intradermal route. There were no safety concerns. Interpretation The data support the future co-administration of IPV, measlesÔÇôrubella, and yellow fever vaccines within the Expanded Programme on Immunization schedule at 9 months. The administration of single fractional intradermal doses of IPV by needle and syringe or disposable-syringe jet injector compromises the immunity generated, although it results in a high post-vaccination poliovirus seroprevalence

    A novel copper complex induces ROS generation in doxorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascitis carcinoma cells and increases activity of antioxidant enzymes in vital organs in vivo

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    BACKGROUND: In search of a suitable GSH-depleting agent, a novel copper complex viz., copper N-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) glycinate (CuNG) has been synthesized, which was initially found to be a potential resistance modifying agent and later found to be an immunomodulator in mice model in different doses. The objective of the present work was to decipher the effect of CuNG on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidant enzymes in normal and doxorubicin-resistant Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC/Dox)-bearing Swiss albino mice. METHODS: The effect of CuNG has been studied on ROS generation, multidrug resistance-associated protein1 (MRP1) expression and on activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). RESULTS: CuNG increased ROS generation and reduced MRP1 expression in EAC/Dox cells while only temporarily depleted glutathione (GSH) within 2 h in heart, kidney, liver and lung of EAC/Dox bearing mice, which were restored within 24 h. The level of liver Cu was observed to be inversely proportional to the level of GSH. Moreover, CuNG modulated SOD, CAT and GPx in different organs and thereby reduced oxidative stress. Thus nontoxic dose of CuNG may be utilized to reduce MRP1 expression and thus sensitize EAC/Dox cells to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, CuNG modulated SOD, CAT and and GPx activities to reduce oxidative stress in some vital organs of EAC/Dox bearing mice. CuNG treatment also helped to recover liver and renal function in EAC/Dox bearing mice. CONCLUSION: Based on our studies, we conclude that CuNG may be a promising candidate to sensitize drug resistant cancers in the clinic
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