4,257 research outputs found

    Ethnic group differences in overweight and obese children and young people in England: cross sectional survey

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    Aims: To determine the percentage of children and young adults who are obese or overweight within different ethnic and socioeconomic groups.Methods: Secondary analysis of data on 5689 children and young adults aged 2 - 20 years from the 1999 Health Survey for England.Results: Twenty three per cent of children (n = 1311) were overweight, of whom 6% ( n = 358) were obese. More girls than boys were overweight ( 24% v 22%). Afro-Caribbean girls were more likely to be overweight ( odds ratio 1.73, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.33), and Afro-Caribbean and Pakistani girls were more likely to be obese than girls in the general population ( odds ratios 2.74 ( 95% CI 1.74 to 4.31) and 1.71 ( 95% CI 1.06 to 2.76), respectively). Indian and Pakistani boys were more likely to be overweight ( odds ratios 1.55 ( 95% CI 1.12 to 2.17) and 1.36 ( 95% CI 1.01 to 1.83), respectively). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of obese and overweight children from different social classes.Conclusion: The percentage of children and young adults who are obese and overweight differs by ethnic group and sex, but not by social class. British Afro-Caribbean and Pakistani girls have an increased risk of being obese and Indian and Pakistani boys have an increased risk of being overweight than the general population. These individuals may be at greater combined cumulative risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease and so may be a priority for initiatives to target groups of children at particular risk of obesity

    Keyboardless Visual Programming Using Voice, Handwriting, and Gesture

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    Visual programming languages have facilitated the application development process, improving our ability to express programs, as well as our ability to view, edit and interact with them. Yet even in programming environments, productivity is restricted by the primary input sources: the mouse and the keyboard. As an alternative, we investigate a program development interface which responds to the most natural human communication technologies: voice, handwriting and gesture. Speech- and pen-based systems have yet to find broad acceptance in everyday life because they are insufficiently advantageous to overcome problems with reliability. However, we believe that a visual programming environment with a multimodal user interface properly constrained so as not to exceed the limits of the current technology has the potential to increase programming productivity for not only those people who are manually or visually impaired, but for the general population as well. In this paper we report on such a system

    A User Interface for the Visualization and Manipulation of Arrays

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    The success of spreadsheets has shown that a visual representation of a 2D array greatly facilitates solving certain problems. However, spreadsheets are not general-purpose programming environments and are not suited to many problems that might naturally be solved using multi-dimensional arrays. Furthermore, spreadsheets employ a textual notation for cell references in formulas. This notation, which adds to the programmer\u27\u27s burden by distinguishing between relative and absolute addressing, can be difficult to understand and is error-prone even for the most experienced users. In this paper, we present a user interface for multi-dimensional arrays within Formulate, a form-based visual programming language. This implementation avoids textual array notation and supports the application of formulas to logical regions of an array, rather than just to individual elements

    Copper-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Trifluoromethylation of Allylic Bromodifluoroacetates

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    The development of new synthetic fluorination reactions has important implications in medicinal, agricultural and materials chemistries. Given the prevalence and accessibility of alcohols, methods to convert alcohols to trifluoromethanes are desirable. However, this transformation typically requires four-step processes, specialty chemicals, and/or stoichiometric metals to access the trifluoromethyl-containing product. A two-step copper-catalyzed decarboxylative protocol for converting allylic alcohols to trifluoromethanes is reported. Preliminary mechanistic studies distinguish this reaction from previously reported Cu-mediated reactions

    A Visual Query System for the Specification and Scientific Analysis of Continual Queries

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    The lack of a facility that would allow nonprogrammers to easily formulate temporal ad hoc analyses over a network of heterogeneous, constantly-updated data sources has been a significant impediment to research, particularly in the scientific community. In this paper we describe WebFormulate, an Internet-based system which facilitates the development of analyses using information obtained from databases on the Internet. The main distinction between this system and existing Internet facilities to retrieve information and assimilate it into computations is that WebFormulate provides the necessary facilities to perform continual queries, developing and maintaining dynamic links such that computations and reports automatically maintain themselves. A further distinction is that this system is specifically designed for users of spreadsheet-level ability, rather than professional programmers

    Copper-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Trifluoromethylation of Propargyl Bromodifluoroacetates

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    The development of efficient methods for accessing fluorinated functional groups is desirable. Herein, we report a two-step method that utilizes catalytic Cu for the decarboxylative trifluoromethylation of propargyl bromodifluoroacetates. This protocol affords a mixture of propargyl trifluoromethanes and trifluoromethyl allenes

    Neurons in the Dorsomedial Hypothalamus Promote, Prolong, and Deepen Torpor in the Mouse

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    Torpor is a naturally occurring, hypometabolic, hypothermic state engaged by a wide range of animals in response to imbalance between the supply and demand for nutrients. Recent work has identified some of the key neuronal populations involved in daily torpor induction in mice, in particular, projections from the preoptic area of the hypothalamus to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). The DMH plays a role in thermoregulation, control of energy expenditure, and circadian rhythms, making it well positioned to contribute to the expression of torpor. We used activity-dependent genetic TRAPing techniques to target DMH neurons that were active during natural torpor bouts in female mice. Chemogenetic reactivation of torpor-TRAPed DMH neurons in calorie-restricted mice promoted torpor, resulting in longer and deeper torpor bouts. Chemogenetic inhibition of torpor-TRAPed DMH neurons did not block torpor entry, suggesting a modulatory role for the DMH in the control of torpor. This work adds to the evidence that the preoptic area of the hypothalamus and the DMH form part of a circuit within the mouse hypothalamus that controls entry into daily torpor

    The spreadsheet paradigm: a basis for powerful and accessible programming

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    This paper takes a cognition-centric approach for programming languages. It promotes the spreadsheet paradigm, with two concrete goals. First, it calls for the design and implementation of several language features to enhance the expressiveness of spreadsheet programming. Second, it describes a plan for rigorous empirical studies to retain the learnability of spreadsheet programming

    Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical effectiveness of self-management interventions in Parkinson’s disease

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    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a complex neurodegenerative condition with significant impact on quality of life (QoL), wellbeing and function. The objective of this review is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of self-management interventions for people with Parkinson's disease, taking a broad view of self-management and considering effects on QoL, wellbeing and function. METHODS: Systematic searches of four databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science) were conducted for studies evaluating self-management interventions for people with Parkinson's disease published up to 16th November 2020. Original quantitative studies of adults with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were included, whilst studies of atypical Parkinsonism were excluded. Full-text articles were independently assessed by two reviewers, with data extracted by one reviewer and reliability checked by a second reviewer, then synthesised through a narrative approach and, for sufficiently similar studies, a meta-analysis of effect size was conducted (using a random-effects meta-analysis with restricted maximum likelihood method pooled estimate). Interventions were subdivided into self-management components according to PRISMS Taxonomy. Risk of bias was examined with the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 (RoB2) tool or ROBIN-I tool as appropriate. RESULTS: Thirty-six studies were included, evaluating a diverse array of interventions and encompassing a range of study designs (RCT n = 19; non-randomised CT n = five; within subject pre- and post-intervention comparisons n = 12). A total of 2884 participants were assessed in studies across ten countries, with greatest output from North America (14 studies) and UK (six studies). Risk of bias was moderate to high for the majority of studies, mostly due to lack of participant blinding, which is not often practical for interventions of this nature. Only four studies reported statistically significant improvements in QoL, wellbeing or functional outcomes for the intervention compared to controls. These interventions were group-based self-management education and training programmes, either alone, combined with multi-disciplinary rehabilitation, or combined with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy; and a self-guided community-based exercise programme. Four of the RCTs evaluated sufficiently similar interventions and outcomes for meta-analysis: these were studies of self-management education and training programmes evaluating QoL (n = 478). Meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference between the self-management and the control groups with a standardised mean difference (Hedges g) of - 0.17 (- 0.56, 0.21) p = 0.38. By the GRADE approach, the quality of this evidence was deemed "very low" and the effect of the intervention is therefore uncertain. Components more frequently observed in effective interventions, as per PRISMS taxonomy analysis, were: information about resources; training or rehearsing psychological strategies; social support; and lifestyle advice and support. The applicability of these findings is weakened by the ambiguous and at times overlapping nature of self-management components. CONCLUSION: Approaches and outcomes to self-management interventions in Parkinson's disease are heterogenous. There are insufficient high quality RCTs in this field to show effectiveness of self-management interventions in Parkinson's disease. Whilst it is not possible to draw conclusions on specific intervention components that convey effectiveness, there are promising findings from some studies, which could be targeted in future evaluations
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