1,810 research outputs found

    “Big Data” and the Risk of Employment Discrimination

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    Conditional expression in corticothalamic efferents reveals a developmental role for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in modulation of passive avoidance behavior

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    Prenatal nicotine exposure has been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and cognitive impairment, but the sites of action for these effects of nicotine are still under investigation. High-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) contain the .2 subunit and modulate passive avoidance (PA) learning in mice. Using an inducible, tetracycline-regulated transgenic system, we generated lines of mice with expression of high-affinity nicotinic receptors restored in specific neuronal populations. One line of mice shows functional .2 subunit-containing nAChRs localized exclusively in corticothalamic efferents. Functional, presynaptic nAChRs are present in the thalamus of these mice as detected by nicotine-elicited rubidium efflux assays from synaptosomes. Knock-out mice lacking high-affinity nAChRs show elevated baseline PA learning, whereas normal baseline PA behavior is restored in mice with corticothalamic expression of these nAChRs. In contrast, nicotine can enhance PA learning in adult wild-type animals but not in corticothalamic-expressing transgenic mice. When these transgenic mice are treated with doxycycline in adulthood to switch off nAChR expression, baseline PA is maintained even after transgene expression is abolished. These data suggest that high-affinity nAChRs expressed on corticothalamic neurons during development are critical for baseline PA performance and provide a potential neuroanatomical substrate for changes induced by prenatal nicotine exposure leading to long-term behavioral and cognitive deficits

    Separable Dual Space Gaussian Pseudo-potentials

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    We present pseudo-potential coefficients for the first two rows of the periodic table. The pseudo potential is of a novel analytic form, that gives optimal efficiency in numerical calculations using plane waves as basis set. At most 7 coefficients are necessary to specify its analytic form. It is separable and has optimal decay properties in both real and Fourier space. Because of this property, the application of the nonlocal part of the pseudo-potential to a wave-function can be done in an efficient way on a grid in real space. Real space integration is much faster for large systems than ordinary multiplication in Fourier space since it shows only quadratic scaling with respect to the size of the system. We systematically verify the high accuracy of these pseudo-potentials by extensive atomic and molecular test calculations.Comment: 16 pages, 4 postscript figure

    Gyrotropic impact upon negatively refracting surfaces

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    Surface wave propagation at the interface between different types of gyrotropic materials and an isotropic negatively refracting medium, in which the relative permittivity and relative permeability are, simultaneously, negative is investigated. A general approach is taken that embraces both gyroelectric and gyromagnetic materials, permitting the possibility of operating in either the low GHz, THz or the optical frequency regimes. The classical transverse Voigt configuration is adopted and a complete analysis of non-reciprocal surface wave dispersion is presented. The impact of the surface polariton modes upon the reflection of both plane waves and beams is discussed in terms of resonances and an example of the influence upon the Goos–Hänchen shift is given

    In vitro and preclinical assessment of an intranasal spray formulation of parathyroid hormone PTH 1-34 for the treatment of osteoporosis

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    Osteoporosis treatment with PTH 1-34 injections significantly reduces the incidence of bone fracture. Potential further reductions in fracture rate should be observed through nasal spray delivery to address the poor compliance associated with patient dislike of repeated PTH 1-34 subcutaneous injections. In vitro human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cell intracellular cAMP levels were used to define PTH 1-34 nasal spray formulation bioactivity. The chemically synthesised PTH 1-34 had an EC50 of 0.76nM. Absorption enhancers polyethylene glycol (15)-hydroxystearate (Solutol® HS15), poloxamer 407, chitosan or sodium hyaluronate did not diminish the bioactivity of PTH 1-34 within an in vitro cell culture model (p>0.05). We also demonstrated the effectiveness of the transmucosal absorption enhancer Solutol® HS15 in a nasal spray formulation using a preclinical pharmacokinetic model. In Sprague-Dawley rats without the absorption enhancer the uptake of PTH 1-34 into the blood via intranasal delivery produced a Cmax of 2.1±0.5 ng/ml compared to 13.7±1.6 ng/ml with Solutol® HS15 enhancer (p=0.016) and a Cmax14.8±8 ng/ml in subcutaneous injections. Together these data illustrate that the nasal spray formulation bioactivity in vitro is not affected by the nasal spray absorption enhancers investigated, and the Solutol® HS15 nasal spray formulation had an equivalent pharmacokinetic profile to subcutaneous injection in the rat model. The Solutol® HS15 formulation therefore demonstrated potential as a PTH 1-34 nasal spray formulation for the treatment of osteoporosis

    Variants in the zinc transporter-3 encoding gene (SLC30A3) in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: effects on brain glutamate–A pilot study

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    Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) has been implicated in the aetiopathology of schizophrenia. In this pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of a minor allele of two variants in the gene encoding ZnT3 (SLC30A3) affects brain glutamate and cognitive activity in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), 15 with bipolar affective disorder type 2 (BD), and 14 healthy volunteers (HV) were genotyped for two SLC30A3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs11126936 and rs11126929). They also underwent structural and functional MRI (n-back) imaging as well as static (PRESS) and functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n-back) on a 3 Tesla MRI system. SCZ with at least one copy of the minor allele showed reductions in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex glutamate during the n-back task, whereas SCZ without the minor allele showed an increase in glutamate. BD with the minor allele had reduced glutamate in the anterior cingulate cortex (p < 0.05). There was no effect of SLC30A3 genotype on BOLD activation during n-back or on cortical brain volume. This study supports the further investigation of SLC30A3 and its role in glutamatergic neurotransmission and in the neuropathology of mental illness

    SPICES: Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems

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    SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems) is a five-year M-class mission proposed to ESA Cosmic Vision. Its purpose is to image and characterize long-period extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks in the visible (450 - 900 nm) at a spectral resolution of about 40 using both spectroscopy and polarimetry. By 2020/22, present and near-term instruments will have found several tens of planets that SPICES will be able to observe and study in detail. Equipped with a 1.5 m telescope, SPICES can preferentially access exoplanets located at several AUs (0.5-10 AU) from nearby stars (<<25 pc) with masses ranging from a few Jupiter masses to Super Earths (∼\sim2 Earth radii, ∼\sim10 M⊕_{\oplus}) as well as circumstellar disks as faint as a few times the zodiacal light in the Solar System

    Full-depth temperature trends in the Northeastern Atlantic through the early 21st century

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    The vertical structure of temperature trends in the northeastern Atlantic (NEA) is investigated from a blend of Argo and hydrography data. The representativeness of sparse hydrography sampling in the basin-mean is assessed using a numerical model. Between 2003 and 2013, the NEA underwent a strong surface cooling (0-450?m) and a significant warming at intermediate and deep levels (1000?m-3000?m) that followed a strong cooling trend observed between 1988 and 2003. During 2003-2013, gyre-specific changes are found in the upper 1000?m (warming and cooling of the subtropical and subpolar gyres, respectively) whilst the intermediate and deep warming primarily occurred in the subpolar gyre, with important contributions from isopycnal heave and water mass property changes. The full-depth temperature change requires a local downward heat flux of 0.53?±?0.06?W?m?2 through the sea-surface, and its vertical distribution highlights the likely important role of the NEA in the recent global warming hiatus
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