23,705 research outputs found

    Epigenetic control of Epstein–Barr virus transcription – relevance to viral life cycle?

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    DNA methylation normally leads to silencing of gene expression but Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) provides an exception to the epigenetic paradigm. DNA methylation is absolutely required for the expression of many viral genes. Although the viral genome is initially un-methylated in newly infected cells, it becomes extensively methylated during the establishment of viral latency. One of the major regulators of EBV gene expression is a viral transcription factor called Zta (BZLF1, ZEBRA, Z) that resembles the cellular AP1 transcription factor. Zta recognizes at least 32 variants of a 7-nucleotide DNA sequence element, the Zta-response element (ZRE), some of which contain a CpG motif. Zta only binds to the latter class of ZREs in their DNA-methylated form, whether they occur in viral or cellular promoters and is functionally relevant for the activity of these promoters. The ability of Zta to interpret the differential DNA methylation of the viral genome is paramount for both the establishment of viral latency and the release from latency to initiate viral replication

    Migration, Remittances and Gender-Responsive Local Development: Executive Summaries. Case Studies: Albania, the Dominican Republic, Lesotho, Morocco, the Philippines and Senegal

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    The complex links between globalization and development have made contemporary migration a key area of investigation. It is estimated that over 200 million women and men have left their countries of origin to live and work abroad. Occurring simultaneously are equally intensive internal movements, primarily from rural to urban areas. Demographically, many country-specific flows have changed, both in terms of numbers and composition by sex. Studies on the feminization of migration2 have revealed women’s significant role and impact as actors in the migration process. Despite the rapid increase in the volume and diversity of knowledge on the migration-development nexus, research and debate on the gender dimensions of this issue, including the role of women within migratory flows, continues to be scarce. In 2007, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (UN-INSTRAW) began a joint project entitled “Gender and Remittances: Building Gender-Responsive Local Development. ” The project has sought to enhance gender-responsive local development by identifying and promoting options for utilizing remittances for sustainable livelihoods and for building social capital in poor rural and semi-urban communities. The research phase of the project has been implemented in six countries: Albania, the Dominican Republic, Lesotho, Morocco, the Philippines and Senegal. The strategic aim of the project is to generate action-oriented research that will be used to: Increase awareness and improve access of women-headed, remittance-recipient households to productive resources, while augmenting their assets and strengthening their capacities; Provide relevant information to local and national governments to identify and formulate policies that will optimize remittance utilization for sustainable livelihoods and for building social capital; and Contribute to enhancing key stakeholders’ capacities to integrate gender into policies, programmes, projects, and other initiatives linking remittances with sustainable livelihoods and building social capital. The six case studies aim to narrow the knowledge gap on the gender dimensions of migration and remittances through an interlinked analysis of migration and development. Particular attention is paid to the impact of remittances (financial, in-kind and social) on gendered development processes in countries of origin and amongst transnational households spanning the origin and destination countries

    Electrochemistry of ferrocenylphosphines FcCH₂PR₂ (Fc=(η⁵-C₅H₅)Fe(η⁵-C₅H₄); R=Ph, CH₂OH and CH₂CH₂CN), and some phosphine oxide, phosphine sulfide, phosphonium and metal complex derivatives

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    Electrochemical studies of the free ferrocenylphosphine ligands FcCH₂PR₂ (Fc=(η⁵-C₅H₅)Fe(η⁵-C₅H₄); R=Ph, CH₂OH and CH₂CH₂CN) and some phosphine oxide, phosphine sulfide, phosphonium and metal derivatives are described. The free ligands exhibit complex voltammetric responses due to participation of the phosphorus lone pair in the redox reactions. Uncomplicated ferrocene-based redox chemistry is observed for PV derivatives and when the ligands are coordinated in complexes cis-PtCl₂[FcCH₂P(CH₂OH)₂], PdCl₂[FcCH₂P(CH₂OH)₂], [Au{FcCH₂P(CH₂OH)₂}₂]Cl, RuCl₂(η⁶-C₁₀H₁₄)[FcCH₂P(CH₂OH)₂] and RuCl₂(η⁶-C₁₀H₁₄)(FcCH₂PPh₂). The reaction pathways of the free ligands after one-electron oxidation have been examined in detail using voltammetry, NMR spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. Direct evidence for formation of a P---P bonded product is presented

    Volunteer tourism: Evidence of cathartic tourist experiences

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    The study involved in-depth interviews with participants of an Australian non-government organization (NGO) that organizes projects in which young volunteers aged between 17 and 26 years from Australia and New Zealand participate in welfare projects with partner NGOs in developing countries. The welfare projects provide on the ground assistance to communities; these may not lead to longer-term sustainable development through longer-term skills training but engage the volunteers and community in a mutual exchange. Typically, participants will be engaged in short term courses in health and hygiene, micro-enterprise management skills, assisting in community health projects, community service with children with disabilities or orphans, painting, construction of school playgrounds and classrooms, guest teaching in schools, cultural exchange and disaster relief. The Australian NGO provides no financial assistance for participants; it primarily organizes and facilitates the travel, project and community work. Each project lasts between two and four weeks and are thus typically short-term in duration. As such, participants can be considered 'shallow volunteer tourists' (Callanan and Thomas 2005)

    What does successful social prescribing look like? Mapping meaningful outcomes

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    This study aimed to investigate and collate all the outcomes that are being experienced in link worker based social prescribing schemes. We found this reflects a large evidence gap where research money needs to be invested. Data from this study highlighted that VCSE organisations engaged with social prescribing are not receiving full attribution for their contribution to improving the health and wellbeing of people. Within the literature, there are a range of reports and research articles that support the use of community organisations and services. Little of this knowledge or impact, however, is contextualised within the terms of link worker based social prescribing schemes

    The Consequences of Perfectionism Scale: Factorial structure and relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms

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    This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive and negative consequences of perfectionism