2,763 research outputs found

    Hot Zero and Full Power Validation of PHISICS RELAP-5 Coupling

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    PHISICS is a reactor analysis toolkit developed over the last 3 years at the Idaho National Laboratory. It has been coupled with the reactor safety analysis code RELAP5-3D. PHISICS is aimed at providing an optimal trade off between needed computational resources (in the range of 10~100 computer processors) and accuracy. In fact, this range has been identified as the next 5 to 10 years average computational capability available to nuclear reactor design and optimization nuclear reactor cores. Detailed information about the individual modules of PHISICS can be found in [1]. An overview of the modules used in this study is given in the next subsection. Lately, the Idaho National Laboratory gained access plant data for the first cycle of a PWR, including Hot Zero Power (HZP) and Hot Full Power (HFP). This data provides the opportunity to validate the transport solver, the interpolation capability for mixed macro and micro cross section and the criticality search option of the PHISICS pack

    Hough Transform Proposal and Simulations for Particle Track Recognition for LHC Phase-II Upgrade

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    In the near future, LHC experiments will continue future upgrades by overcoming the technological obsolescence of the detectors and the readout capabilities. Therefore, after the conclusion of a data collection period, CERN will have to face a long shutdown to improve overall performance, by updating the experiments, and implementing more advanced technologies and infrastructures. In particular, the largest LHC experiment, i.e., ATLAS, will upgrade parts of the detector, the trigger, and the data acquisition system. In addition, the ATLAS experiment will complete the implementation of new strategies, algorithms for data handling, and transmission to the final storage apparatus. This paper presents an overview of an upgrade planned for the second half of this decade for the ATLAS experiment. In particular, we show a study of a novel pattern recognition algorithm used in the trigger system, which is a device designed to provide the information needed to select physical events from unnecessary background data. The idea is to use a well known mathematical transform, the Hough transform, as the algorithm for the detection of particle trajectories. The effectiveness of the algorithm has already been validated in the past, regardless of particle physics applications, to recognize generic shapes within images. On the contrary, here, we first propose a software emulation tool, and a subsequent hardware implementation of the Hough transform, for particle physics applications. Until now, the Hough transform has never been implemented on electronics in particle physics experiments, and since a hardware implementation would provide benefits in terms of overall Latency, we complete the studies by comparing the simulated data with a physical system implemented on a Xilinx hardware accelerator (FELIX-II card). In more detail, we have implemented a low-abstraction RTL design of the Hough transform on Xilinx UltraScale+ FPGAs as target devices for filtering applications

    Paleomagnetic constraints on the Plio-Pleistocene geodynamic evolution of the external central-northern Apennines (Italy)

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    We report on new paleomagnetic results obtained from 27 sites sampled in the Plio-Pleistocene sequences at the external front of the central-northern Apennines. Previous analyses of Miocene (Messinian) sediments indicated that the present shape of the northern Apenninic arc is due to the oroclinal bending of an originally straight belt oriented around N320° and that vertical axis rotations accompanied the migration of the thrust fronts toward the Adriatic foreland [F. Speranza et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (1997) 3153-3166]. We tried to provide new paleomagnetic constraints for the timing and rates of the oroclinal bending process during the Pliocene and the Pleistocene. The results suggest that CCW rotations observed in the northern part of the studied area are possibly younger than 3 Ma. No regional rotation is recorded in the Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments from the southern part of the study area, analogously to the Messinian sediments of the 'Acquasanta' domain of Speranza et al. [F. Speranza et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102 (1997) 3153-3166]. A local significant CCW rotation (23° ± 10°) is identified in the Early Pleistocene sediments that crop out along the Adriatic coast between Ascoli and Pescara, indicating differential motion of the thrust sheets. This rotation must be younger than 1.43 Ma

    Flow Resistance in Open Channel Due to Vegetation at Reach Scale: A Review

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    Vegetation on the banks and flooding areas of watercourses significantly affects energy losses. To take the latter into account, computational models make use of resistance coefficients based on the evaluation of bed and walls roughness besides the resistance to flow offered by vegetation. This paper, after summarizing the classical approaches based on descriptions and pictures, considers the recent advancements related to the analytical methods relative both to rigid and flexible vegetation. In particular, emergent rigid vegetation is first analyzed by focusing on the methods for determining the drag coefficient, then submerged rigid vegetation is analyzed, highlighting briefly the principles on which the different models are based and recalling the comparisons made in the literature. Then, the models used in the case of both emergent and submerged rigid vegetation are highlighted. As to flexible vegetation, the paper reminds first the flow conditions that cause the vegetation to lay on the channel bed, and then the classical resistance laws that were developed for the design of irrigation canals. The most recent developments in the case of submerged and emergent flexible vegetation are then presented. Since turbulence studies should be considered as the basis of flow resistance, even though the path toward practical use is still long, the new developments in the field of 3D numerical methods are briefly reviewed, presently used to assess the characteristics of turbulence and the transport of sediments and pollutants. The use of remote sensing to map riparian vegetation and estimating biomechanical parameters is briefly analyzed. Finally, some applications are presented, aimed at highlighting, in real cases, the influence exerted by vegetation on water depth and maintenance interventions

    Discharge coefficients for sluice gates set in weirs at different ustream wall inclination

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    Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations are performed to measure discharge coecients in the case of a gate located on the upstream wall of a weir for flood storage. The eect of the gate slope and the side contraction have been taken into account. The study was first performed experimentally, when three series of tests were carried out with (and without) a broad crested weir located under the gate, at dierent values of the inclination angle of the weir upstream wall, and at dierent values of the shape ratio and the relative opening. In order to provide useful suggestions for those involved in sluice gate construction and management, three equations were obtained based on multiple regression, relating the discharge coecient to dierent parameters that characterize the phenomenon at hand, separating the case when the broad-crested weir was present. Then numerical simulations were executed by means of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations with the k-" turbulence closure model and in conjunction with the volume of fluid (VOF) method, to validate the numerical results against the experimental and to possibly investigate phenomena not caught by the experimental measurements. Simulated discharges were very close to the observed ones showing that the proposed three-dimensional numerical procedure is a favorable option to correctly reproduce the phenomenon

    Proper orthogonal decomposition of solar photospheric motions

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    The spatio-temporal dynamics of the solar photosphere is studied by performing a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) of line of sight velocity fields computed from high resolution data coming from the MDI/SOHO instrument. Using this technique, we are able to identify and characterize the different dynamical regimes acting in the system. Low frequency oscillations, with frequencies in the range 20-130 microHz, dominate the most energetic POD modes (excluding solar rotation), and are characterized by spatial patterns with typical scales of about 3 Mm. Patterns with larger typical scales of 10 Mm, are associated to p-modes oscillations at frequencies of about 3000 microHz.Comment: 8 figures in jpg in press on PR

    An Optimal Execution Problem with Market Impact

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    We study an optimal execution problem in a continuous-time market model that considers market impact. We formulate the problem as a stochastic control problem and investigate properties of the corresponding value function. We find that right-continuity at the time origin is associated with the strength of market impact for large sales, otherwise the value function is continuous. Moreover, we show the semi-group property (Bellman principle) and characterise the value function as a viscosity solution of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. We introduce some examples where the forms of the optimal strategies change completely, depending on the amount of the trader's security holdings and where optimal strategies in the Black-Scholes type market with nonlinear market impact are not block liquidation but gradual liquidation, even when the trader is risk-neutral.Comment: 36 pages, 8 figures, a modified version of the article "An optimal execution problem with market impact" in Finance and Stochastics (2014

    THGEM-based detectors for sampling elements in DHCAL: laboratory and beam evaluation

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    We report on the results of an extensive R&D program aimed at the evaluation of Thick-Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) as potential active elements for Digital Hadron Calorimetry (DHCAL). Results are presented on efficiency, pad multiplicity and discharge probability of a 10x10 cm2 prototype detector with 1 cm2 readout pads. The detector is comprised of single- or double-THGEM multipliers coupled to the pad electrode either directly or via a resistive anode. Investigations employing standard discrete electronics and the KPiX readout system have been carried out both under laboratory conditions and with muons and pions at the CERN RD51 test beam. For detectors having a charge-induction gap, it has been shown that even a ~6 mm thick single-THGEM detector reached detection efficiencies above 95%, with pad-hit multiplicity of 1.1-1.2 per event; discharge probabilities were of the order of 1e-6 - 1e-5 sparks/trigger, depending on the detector structure and gain. Preliminary beam tests with a WELL hole-structure, closed by a resistive anode, yielded discharge probabilities of <2e-6 for an efficiency of ~95%. Methods are presented to reduce charge-spread and pad multiplicity with resistive anodes. The new method showed good prospects for further evaluation of very thin THGEM-based detectors as potential active elements for DHCAL, with competitive performances, simplicity and robustness. Further developments are in course.Comment: 15 pages, 11 figures, MPGD2011 conference proceedin
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