1,965 research outputs found

    Reporting of Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) association studies: An empirical assessment

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure) or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.</p

    The interactive role of type 2 diabetes mellitus and E-selectin S128R mutation on susceptibility to coronary heart disease

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The role of gene-environment interactions as risk factors for coronary heart disease (CAD) remains largely undefined. Such interactions may involve gene mutations and disease conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) predisposing individuals to acquiring the disease.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>In the present study, we assessed the possible interactive effect of DM2 and E-selectin S128R polymorphism with respect to its predisposing individuals to CAD, using as a study model a population of 1,112 patients and 427 angiographed controls of Saudi origin. E-selectin genotyping was accomplished by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by <it>Pst</it>I restriction enzyme digestion.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The results show that DM2 is an independent risk factor for CAD. In the absence of DM2, the presence of the R mutant allele alone is not significantly associated with CAD (p = 0.431, OR 1.28). In contrast, in the presence of DM2 and the S allele, the likelihood of an individual acquiring CAD is significant (odds ratio = 5.44; p = < 0.001). This effect of DM2 becomes remarkably greater in the presence of the mutant 128R allele, as can be observed from the odds ratio of their interaction term (odds ratio = 6.11; p = < 0.001).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our findings indicate therefore that the risk of acquiring CAD in patients with DM2 increases significantly in the presence of the 128R mutant allele of the E-selectin gene.</p

    Search for flavour-changing neutral currents in processes with one top quark and a photon using 81 fb−1 of pp collisions at s=13TeV with the ATLAS experiment

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    A search for flavour-changing neutral current (FCNC) events via the coupling of a top quark, a photon, and an up or charm quark is presented using 81 fb−1 of proton–proton collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events with a photon, an electron or muon, a b-tagged jet, and missing transverse momentum are selected. A neural network based on kinematic variables differentiates between events from signal and background processes. The data are consistent with the background-only hypothesis, and limits are set on the strength of the tqγ coupling in an effective field theory. These are also interpreted as 95% CL upper limits on the cross section for FCNC tγ production via a left-handed (right-handed) tuγ coupling of 36 fb (78 fb) and on the branching ratio for t→γu of 2.8×10−5 (6.1×10−5). In addition, they are interpreted as 95% CL upper limits on the cross section for FCNC tγ production via a left-handed (right-handed) tcγ coupling of 40 fb (33 fb) and on the branching ratio for t→γc of 22×10−5 (18×10−5)

    Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

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    Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA) database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity