11,237 research outputs found

    Elemental abundances of mercury-manganese stars and the population 2 type star HD 109995

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    Ultraviolet and optical data for the Hg Mn stars Coronae Borealis and Cancri is being combined with data for the field horizontal branch population II star HD 109995 in order to derive the element abundances in their photospheres. Data collected by IUE is being utilized

    The Limits of Liability in Promoting Safe Geologic Sequestration of CO2

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    Deployment of new technologies is vital to climate change policy, but it invariably poses difficult tradeoffs. Carbon capture and storage (“CCS”), which involves the capture and permanent burial of CO2 emissions, exemplifies this problem. This article provides an overview of CCS in Part I, focusing on geologic sequestration, and analyzes the scientific work on the potential for releases of CO2 and brine from sequestrian reservoirs. Part II evaluates the comparative advantages of government regulation and common law liability. Part III examines the relative efficiencies of different doctrines of common law liability when applied to likely releases from sequestrian sites. The authors propose a hybrid legal framework in Part IV that combines a traditional regulatory regime with a novel two-tiered system of liability that is calibrated to objective site characteristics.The Kay Bailey Hutchison Center for Energy, Law, and Busines

    Vortex Studies Relating to Boundary Layer Turbulence and Noise

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    The present study considers the two-dimensional case of an array of N rectilinear, like-sign vortices above an infinite flat boundary. The method of images can be employed with this configuration to reduce the problem to that of 2N vortices in free space, constrained by 2N symmetry relations. This system is Hamiltonian and therefore certain invariants of the motion are known. Further, from the Hamiltonian constant, the equations of motion are readily derived and may be integrated numerically to determine the vortex trajectories. This knowledge of the time-dependent vortex motion then allows the resulting noise radiation to be computed by standard aeroacoustic techniques

    Xenon in Mercury-Manganese Stars

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    Previous studies of elemental abundances in Mercury-Manganese (HgMn) stars have occasionally reported the presence of lines of the ionized rare noble gas Xe II, especially in a few of the hottest stars with Teff ~ 13000--15000 K. A new study of this element has been undertaken using observations from Lick Observatory's Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph. In this work, the spectrum synthesis program UCLSYN has been used to undertake abundance analysis assuming LTE. We find that in the Smith & Dworetsky sample of HgMn stars, Xe is vastly over-abundant in 21 of 22 HgMn stars studied, by factors of 3.1--4.8 dex. There does not appear to be a significant correlation of Xe abundance with Teff. A comparison sample of normal late B stars shows no sign of Xe II lines that could be detected, consistent with the expected weakness of lines at normal abundance. The main reason for the previous lack of widespread detection in HgMn stars is probably due to the strongest lines being at longer wavelengths than the photographic blue. The lines used in this work were 4603.03A, 4844.33A and 5292.22A.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures. Accepted by Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 8 January 200

    The field horizontal-branch star HD 109995: New results with coadded ultraviolet and optical region spectra

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    A comprehensive ultraviolet and optical region abundance analysis of the field horizontal branch Population 2 A-type star HD 109995 is described. Coaddition of IUE high dispersion images and DAO 6.5 A/mm IIaO spectrograms improved the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We have identified ultraviolet lines whose analysis will provide more complete and accurate elemental abundances than those obtained from optical region spectra alone. A preliminary elemental abundance analysis of the optical region shows that log Z/Z (solar) approx. = -2. A first attempt to synthesize two Fe 2 ultraviolet resonance lines yields an iron abundance a few tenths of a deg higher than the average obtained from optical region Fe 2 lines

    Line identification studies using traditional techniques and wavelength coincidence statistics

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    Traditional line identification techniques result in the assignment of individual lines to an atomic or ionic species. These methods may be supplemented by wavelength coincidence statistics (WCS). The strength and weakness of these methods are discussed using spectra of a number of normal and peculiar B and A stars that have been studied independently by both methods. The present results support the overall findings of some earlier studies. WCS would be most useful in a first survey, before traditional methods have been applied. WCS can quickly make a global search for all species and in this way may enable identifications of an unexpected spectrum that could easily be omitted entirely from a traditional study. This is illustrated by O I. WCS is a subject to well known weakness of any statistical technique, for example, a predictable number of spurious results are to be expected. The danger of small number statistics are illustrated. WCS is at its best relative to traditional methods in finding a line-rich atomic species that is only weakly present in a complicated stellar spectrum

    Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications, and needs

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    Some innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. These techniques include a finite-difference step-size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, a simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Finally, some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with Langley plans for dealing with some of these needs

    Selecting step sizes in sensitivity analysis by finite differences

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    This paper deals with methods for obtaining near-optimum step sizes for finite difference approximations to first derivatives with particular application to sensitivity analysis. A technique denoted the finite difference (FD) algorithm, previously described in the literature and applicable to one derivative at a time, is extended to the calculation of several simultaneously. Both the original and extended FD algorithms are applied to sensitivity analysis for a data-fitting problem in which derivatives of the coefficients of an interpolation polynomial are calculated with respect to uncertainties in the data. The methods are also applied to sensitivity analysis of the structural response of a finite-element-modeled swept wing. In a previous study, this sensitivity analysis of the swept wing required a time-consuming trial-and-error effort to obtain a suitable step size, but it proved to be a routine application for the extended FD algorithm herein
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