209 research outputs found

    Nature-Inspired Interconnects for Self-Assembled Large-Scale Network-on-Chip Designs

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    Future nano-scale electronics built up from an Avogadro number of components needs efficient, highly scalable, and robust means of communication in order to be competitive with traditional silicon approaches. In recent years, the Networks-on-Chip (NoC) paradigm emerged as a promising solution to interconnect challenges in silicon-based electronics. Current NoC architectures are either highly regular or fully customized, both of which represent implausible assumptions for emerging bottom-up self-assembled molecular electronics that are generally assumed to have a high degree of irregularity and imperfection. Here, we pragmatically and experimentally investigate important design trade-offs and properties of an irregular, abstract, yet physically plausible 3D small-world interconnect fabric that is inspired by modern network-on-chip paradigms. We vary the framework's key parameters, such as the connectivity, the number of switch nodes, the distribution of long- versus short-range connections, and measure the network's relevant communication characteristics. We further explore the robustness against link failures and the ability and efficiency to solve a simple toy problem, the synchronization task. The results confirm that (1) computation in irregular assemblies is a promising and disruptive computing paradigm for self-assembled nano-scale electronics and (2) that 3D small-world interconnect fabrics with a power-law decaying distribution of shortcut lengths are physically plausible and have major advantages over local 2D and 3D regular topologies

    Non-deterministic density classification with diffusive probabilistic cellular automata

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    We present a probabilistic cellular automaton (CA) with two absorbing states which performs classification of binary strings in a non-deterministic sense. In a system evolving under this CA rule, empty sites become occupied with a probability proportional to the number of occupied sites in the neighborhood, while occupied sites become empty with a probability proportional to the number of empty sites in the neighborhood. The probability that all sites become eventually occupied is equal to the density of occupied sites in the initial string.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Rapid evolution of female-biased genes among four species of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes.

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    Understanding how phenotypic differences between males and females arise from the sex-biased expression of nearly identical genomes can reveal important insights into the biology and evolution of a species. Among Anopheles mosquito species, these phenotypic differences include vectorial capacity, as it is only females that blood feed and thus transmit human malaria. Here, we use RNA-seq data from multiple tissues of four vector species spanning the Anopheles phylogeny to explore the genomic and evolutionary properties of sex-biased genes. We find that, in these mosquitoes, in contrast to what has been found in many other organisms, female-biased genes are more rapidly evolving in sequence, expression, and genic turnover than male-biased genes. Our results suggest that this atypical pattern may be due to the combination of sex-specific life history challenges encountered by females, such as blood feeding. Furthermore, female propensity to mate only once in nature in male swarms likely diminishes sexual selection of post-reproductive traits related to sperm competition among males. We also develop a comparative framework to systematically explore tissue- and sex-specific splicing to document its conservation throughout the genus and identify a set of candidate genes for future functional analyses of sex-specific isoform usage. Finally, our data reveal that the deficit of male-biased genes on the X Chromosomes in Anopheles is a conserved feature in this genus and can be directly attributed to chromosome-wide transcriptional regulation that de-masculinizes the X in male reproductive tissues

    Cross-Species Y Chromosome Function Between Malaria Vectors of the Anopheles gambiae Species Complex.

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    Y chromosome function, structure and evolution is poorly understood in many species, including the Anopheles genus of mosquitoes-an emerging model system for studying speciation that also represents the major vectors of malaria. While the Anopheline Y had previously been implicated in male mating behavior, recent data from the Anopheles gambiae complex suggests that, apart from the putative primary sex-determiner, no other genes are conserved on the Y. Studying the functional basis of the evolutionary divergence of the Y chromosome in the gambiae complex is complicated by complete F1 male hybrid sterility. Here, we used an F1 × F0 crossing scheme to overcome a severe bottleneck of male hybrid incompatibilities that enabled us to experimentally purify a genetically labeled A. gambiae Y chromosome in an A. arabiensis background. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) confirmed that the A. gambiae Y retained its original sequence content in the A. arabiensis genomic background. In contrast to comparable experiments in Drosophila, we find that the presence of a heterospecific Y chromosome has no significant effect on the expression of A. arabiensis genes, and transcriptional differences can be explained almost exclusively as a direct consequence of transcripts arising from sequence elements present on the A. gambiae Y chromosome itself. We find that Y hybrids show no obvious fertility defects, and no substantial reduction in male competitiveness. Our results demonstrate that, despite their radically different structure, Y chromosomes of these two species of the gambiae complex that diverged an estimated 1.85 MYA function interchangeably, thus indicating that the Y chromosome does not harbor loci contributing to hybrid incompatibility. Therefore, Y chromosome gene flow between members of the gambiae complex is possible even at their current level of divergence. Importantly, this also suggests that malaria control interventions based on sex-distorting Y drive would be transferable, whether intentionally or contingent, between the major malaria vector species

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of diluted magnetic semiconductors: Zn1-xMxSe (M = Mn, Fe, Co) and Zn1-xMnxY (Y = Se, Te)

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    We have investigated 3d electronic states of doped transition metals in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors, Zn1-xMxSe (M = Mn, Fe, Co) and Zn1-xMnxY (Y = Se, Te), using the transition-metal L2,3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. In order to explain the XAS spectra, we employed a tetragonal cluster model calculation, which includes not only the full ionic multiplet structure but also configuration interaction (CI). The results show that CI is essential to describe the experimental spectra adequately, indicating the strong hybridization between the transition metal 3d and the ligand p orbitals. In the study of Zn1-xMnxY (Y = Se, Te), we also found considerable spectral change in the Mn L2,3-edge XAS spectra for different ligands, confirming the importance of the hybridization effects in these materials.Comment: This paper consists of 22 pages including 4 figures. This paper is submitted to Physical Review

    The Dynamics of Internet Traffic: Self-Similarity, Self-Organization, and Complex Phenomena

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    The Internet is the most complex system ever created in human history. Therefore, its dynamics and traffic unsurprisingly take on a rich variety of complex dynamics, self-organization, and other phenomena that have been researched for years. This paper is a review of the complex dynamics of Internet traffic. Departing from normal treatises, we will take a view from both the network engineering and physics perspectives showing the strengths and weaknesses as well as insights of both. In addition, many less covered phenomena such as traffic oscillations, large-scale effects of worm traffic, and comparisons of the Internet and biological models will be covered.Comment: 63 pages, 7 figures, 7 tables, submitted to Advances in Complex System

    Full Multiple Scattering Analysis of XANES at the Cd L 3- and O K- Edges in CdO Films Combined with a Soft-X-Ray Emission Investigation

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    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at the cadmium L3 and oxygen K edges for CdO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition method, is interpreted within the real-space multiple scattering formalism, FEFF code. The features in the experimental spectra are well reproduced by calculations for a cluster of about six and ten coordination shells around the absorber for L3 edge of Cd and K edge of O, respectively. The calculated projected electronic density of states is found to be in good agreement with unoccupied electronic states in experimental data and allows to conclude that the orbital character of the lowest energy of the conductive band is Cd 5s-O 2p[sigma]*. The charge transfer has been quantified and not purely ionic bonding has been found. Combined XANES and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements allow us to determine the direct and indirect band gap of investigated CdO films to be ~2.4 eV and ~0.9 eV, respectively

    Microguards and micromessengers of the genome

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    The regulation of gene expression is of fundamental importance to maintain organismal function and integrity and requires a multifaceted and highly ordered sequence of events. The cyclic nature of gene expression is known as ‘transcription dynamics’. Disruption or perturbation of these dynamics can result in significant fitness costs arising from genome instability, accelerated ageing and disease. We review recent research that supports the idea that an important new role for small RNAs, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs), is in protecting the genome against short-term transcriptional fluctuations, in a process we term ‘microguarding’. An additional emerging role for miRNAs is as ‘micromessengers’—through alteration of gene expression in target cells to which they are trafficked within microvesicles. We describe the scant but emerging evidence that miRNAs can be moved between different cells, individuals and even species, to exert biologically significant responses. With these two new roles, miRNAs have the potential to protect against deleterious gene expression variation from perturbation and to themselves perturb the expression of genes in target cells. These interactions between cells will frequently be subject to conflicts of interest when they occur between unrelated cells that lack a coincidence of fitness interests. Hence, there is the potential for miRNAs to represent both a means to resolve conflicts of interest, as well as instigate them. We conclude by exploring this conflict hypothesis, by describing some of the initial evidence consistent with it and proposing new ideas for future research into this exciting topic

    Correlations and Renormalization in Lattice Gases

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    A complete formulation is given of an exact kinetic theory for lattice gases. This kinetic theory makes possible the calculation of corrections to the usual Boltzmann / Chapman-Enskog analysis of lattice gases due to the buildup of correlations. It is shown that renormalized transport coefficients can be calculated perturbatively by summing terms in an infinite series. A diagrammatic notation for the terms in this series is given, in analogy with the diagrammatic expansions of continuum kinetic theory and quantum field theory. A closed-form expression for the coefficients associated with the vertices of these diagrams is given. This method is applied to several standard lattice gases, and the results are shown to correctly predict experimentally observed deviations from the Boltzmann analysis.Comment: 94 pages, pure LaTeX including all figure
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