838 research outputs found

    Delayed feedback control of self-mobile cavity solitons in a wide-aperture laser with a saturable absorber

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    We investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of cavity solitons in a broad area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with saturable absorption subjected to time-delayed optical feedback. Using a combination of analytical, numerical and path continuation methods we analyze the bifurcation structure of stationary and moving cavity solitons and identify two different types of traveling localized solutions, corresponding to slow and fast motion. We show that the delay impacts both stationary and moving solutions either causing drifting and wiggling dynamics of initially stationary cavity solitons or leading to stabilization of intrinsically moving solutions. Finally, we demonstrate that the fast cavity solitons can be associated with a lateral mode-locking regime in a broad-area laser with a single longitudinal mode

    Four small supernumerary marker chromosomes derived from chromosomes 6, 8, 11 and 12 in a patient with minimal clinical abnormalities: a case report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Small supernumerary marker chromosomes are still a problem in cytogenetic diagnostic and genetic counseling. This holds especially true for the rare cases with multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes. Most such cases are reported to be clinically severely affected due to the chromosomal imbalances induced by the presence of small supernumerary marker chromosomes. Here we report the first case of a patient having four different small supernumerary marker chromosomes which, apart from slight developmental retardation in youth and non-malignant hyperpigmentation, presented no other clinical signs.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>Our patient was a 30-year-old Caucasian man, delivered by caesarean section because of macrosomy. At birth he presented with bilateral cryptorchidism but no other birth defects. At age of around two years he showed psychomotor delay and a bilateral convergent strabismus. Later he had slight learning difficulties, with normal social behavior and now lives an independent life as an adult. Apart from hypogenitalism, he has multiple hyperpigmented nevi all over his body, short feet with pes cavus and claw toes. At age of 30 years, cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analysis revealed a karyotype of 50,XY,+min(6)(:p11.1-> q11.1:),+min(8)(:p11.1->q11.1:),+min(11)(:p11.11->q11:),+min(12)(:p11.2~12->q10:), leading overall to a small partial trisomy in 12p11.1~12.1.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Including this case, four single case reports are available in the literature with a karyotype 50,XN,+4mar. For prenatally detected multiple small supernumerary marker chromosomes in particular we learn from this case that such a cytogenetic condition may be correlated with a positive clinical outcome.</p

    Zeeman Effect Studies of the Triplet States of Benzene

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    Orbital Configurations and Magnetic Properties of Double-Layered Antiferromagnet Cs3_3Cu2_2Cl4_4Br3_3

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    We report the single-crystal X-ray analysis and magnetic properties of a new double-layered perovskite antiferromagnet, Cs3_3Cu2_2Cl4_4Br3_3. This structure is composed of Cu2_2Cl4_4Br3_3 double layers with elongated CuCl4_4Br2_2 octahedra and is closely related to the Sr3_3Ti2_2O7_7 structure. An as-grown crystal has a singlet ground state with a large excitation gap of őĒ/kB‚ČÉ2000\Delta/k_{\rm B}\simeq 2000 K, due to the strong antiferromagnetic interaction between the two layers. Cs3_3Cu2_2Cl4_4Br3_3 undergoes a structural phase transition at Ts‚ČÉ330T_{\rm s}\simeq330 K accompanied by changes in the orbital configurations of Cu2+^{2+} ions. Once a Cs3_3Cu2_2Cl4_4Br3_3 crystal is heated above TsT_{\rm s}, its magnetic susceptibility obeys the Curie-Weiss law with decreasing temperature even below TsT_{\rm s} and does not exhibit anomalies at TsT_{\rm s}. This implies that in the heated crystal, the orbital state of the high-temperature phase remains unchanged below TsT_{\rm s}, and thus, this orbital state is the metastable state. The structural phase transition at TsT_{\rm s} is characterized as an order-disorder transition of Cu2+^{2+} orbitals.Comment: 6pages. 6figures, to appear in J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. Vol.76 No.

    Health effects in fish of long-term exposure to effluents from wastewater treatment works

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    The effects of simple mixtures of chemicals, with similar mechanisms of action, can be predicted using the concentration addition model (CA). The ability of this model to predict the estrogenic effects of more complex mixtures such as effluent discharges, however, has yet to be established. Effluents from 43 U.K. wastewater treatment works were analyzed for the presence of the principal estrogenic chemical contaminants, estradiol, estrone, ethinylestradiol, and nonylphenol. The measured concentrations were used to predict the estrogenic activity of each effluent, employing the model of CA, based on the relative potencies of the individual chemicals in an in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (rYES) and a short-term (14-day) in vivo rainbow trout vitellogenin induction assay. Based on the measured concentrations of the four chemicals in the effluents and their relative potencies in each assay, the calculated in vitro and in vivo responses compared well and ranged between 3.5 and 87 ng/L of estradiol equivalents (E2 EQ) for the different effluents. In the rYES, however, the measured E2 EQ concentrations in the effluents ranged between 0.65 and 43 ng E2 EQ/L, and they varied against those predicted by the CA model. Deviations in the estimation of the estrogenic potency of the effluents by the CA model, compared with the measured responses in the rYES, are likely to have resulted from inaccuracies associated with the measurement of the chemicals in the extracts derived from the complex effluents. Such deviations could also result as a consequence of interactions between chemicals present in the extracts that disrupted the activation of the estrogen response elements in the rYES. E2 EQ concentrations derived from the vitellogenic response in fathead minnows exposed to a series of effluent dilutions were highly comparable with the E2 EQ concentrations derived from assessments of the estrogenic potency of these dilutions in the rYES. Together these data support the use of bioassays for determining the estrogenic potency of WwTW effluents, and they highlight the associated problems for modeling approaches that are reliant on measured concentrations of estrogenic chemicals

    Estrogens and genomic instability in human cancer cells-involvement of Src/Raf/Erk signaling in micronucleus formation by estrogenic chemicals

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    This article is available open access through the publisher‚Äôs website. Copyright @ 2008 The Authors.Reports of the ability of estrogenic agents such as 17ő≤-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and bisphenol A (BPA) to induce micronuclei (MN) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells have prompted us to investigate whether these effects are linked to activation of the estrogen receptor (ER) őĪ. Coadministration of tamoxifen and the pure ER antagonist ICI 182‚ÄČ780 to cells treated with E2 and E3 did not lead to significant reductions in micronucleus frequencies. Since these antiestrogens interfere with the transcriptional activity of the ER and block promotion of ER-dependent gene expression, it appears that this process is not involved in micronucleus formation. However, ER activation also triggers rapid signaling via the Src/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) pathway. When MCF-7 cells were exposed to E2 and BPA in combination with the specific kinase inhibitors pyrazolopyrimidine and 2‚Ä≤-amino-3‚Ä≤-methoxyflavone, reductions in micronucleus frequencies occurred. These findings suggest that the Src/Raf/Erk pathway plays a role in micronucleus formation by estrogenic agents. Enhanced activation of the Src/Raf/Erk cascade disturbs the localization of Aurora B kinase to kinetochores, leading to a defective spindle checkpoint with chromosome malsegregation. Using antikinetochore CREST antibody staining, a high proportion of micronucleus containing kinetochores was observed, indicating that such processes are relevant to the induction of MN by estrogens. Our results suggest that estrogens induce MN by causing improper chromosome segregation, possibly by interfering with kinase signaling that controls the spindle checkpoint, or by inducing centrosome amplification. Our findings may have some relevance in explaining the effects of estrogens in the later stages of breast carcinogenesis.European Commissio

    Spin Driven Jahn-Teller Distortion in a Pyrochlore system

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    The ground-state properties of the spin-1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the corner-sharing tetrahedra, pyrochlore lattice, is investigated. By breaking up each spin into a pair of 1/2-spins, the problem is reduced to the equivalent one of the spin-1/2 tetrahedral network in analogy with the valence bond solid state in one dimension. The twofold degeneracy of the spin-singlets of a tetrahedron is lifted by a Jahn-Teller mechanism, leading to a cubic to tetragonal structural transition. It is proposed that the present mechanism is responsible for the phase transition observed in the spin-1 spinel compounds ZnV2_2O4_4 and MgV2_2O4_4.Comment: 4 pages, 3 eps figures, REVTeX, to appear in Phys. Rev. Let

    Characterization of a prenatally assessed de novo supernumerary minute ring chromosome 20 in a phenotypically normal male

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The heterogeneous group of small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs) presents serious counseling problems, especially if they are present de novo and diagnosed prenatally. The incidence has been estimated at 1 in 1000 prenatal samples. We present a case of mosaic sSMC diagnosed prenatally after amniocentesis. The sSMC was characterized by various molecular cytogenetic techniques and determined to be a r(20) chromosome. After genetic counseling, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy, and a boy with minor phenotypic variants was born after 39 weeks of pregnancy. The case is compared with four other cases of prenatally detected r(20) mosaicism.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Here we describe a 3 months old male child with normal pre- and postnatal development and with a de novo ring supernumerary marker chromosome in amniocytes cultures. Using new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques, three distinguishable sSMCs (cryptic mosaicism), all derived from chromosome 20, were observed, including ring and minute chromosomes. This heterogeneity was impossible to detect by the conventional G-banding technique or conventional FISH technique that were used before the application of new FISH techniques (subcentromere-specific multicolor-FISH [subcenM-FISH]) and a probe, specific for the 20p12.2 band. The sSMC present in 25% of the cells was present as r(20)(::p12.2~12.3->q11.1::)<abbrgrp><abbr bid="B5">5</abbr></abbrgrp>/r(20;20)(::p12.1->q11.1::q11.1 >p12.1::)<abbrgrp><abbr bid="B2">2</abbr></abbrgrp>/min(20;20)(:p12.1->q11.1::q11.1->p12.1:)<abbrgrp><abbr bid="B1">1</abbr></abbrgrp>. The final karyotype was 47,XY,+r(20)[25%]/46,XY[75%].</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We emphasize the importance of application of molecular cytogenetics in a prenatally diagnostic laboratory and description of more cases to enable a better genetic counseling and risk evaluation.</p

    Attrition of X Chromosome Inactivation in Aged Hematopoietic Stem Cells

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    During X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the inactive X chromosome (Xi) is recruited to the nuclear lamina at the nuclear periphery. Beside X chromosome reactivation resulting in a highly penetrant aging-like hematopoietic malignancy, little is known about XCI in aged hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here, we demonstrate that LaminA/C defines a distinct repressive nuclear compartment for XCI in young HSCs, and its reduction in aged HSCs correlates with an impairment in the overall control of XCI. Integrated omics analyses reveal higher variation in gene expression, global hypomethylation, and significantly increased chromatin accessibility on the X chromosome (Chr X) in aged HSCs. In summary, our data support the role of LaminA/C in the establishment of a special repressive compartment for XCI in HSCs, which is impaired upon aging
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