313 research outputs found

    Can platelet-rich plasma be an alternative to surgery for resistant chronic patellar tendinopathy in sportive people? Poor clinical results at 1-year follow-up

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    Introduction and purpose: Patellar tendinopathy is a disease affecting particularly athletes. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have gained increasing interest for their potential benefits. Anyway, a tendon disease longer than 6 months should be considered as an indication for surgery. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of PRP in athletes with a severe chronic patellar tendinopathy longer than 6 months when surgery should be chosen. Methods: We enrolled 17 sport practitioners (19 patellar tendons) who did not want to undergo surgery and who are nonresponders to other conservative treatments. We treated them with PRP and calculated the results using the visual analog scale (VAS), the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patellar (VISA-P) score, and Tegner Activity Scale. Every test has been conducted at T0, T1 (4 months), and T2 (12 months). Results: We found a poor improvement at T1 and a clinical worsening at T2 through VAS. VISA-P showed a medium improvement both at T1 and T2. Tegner scale did not show improvements. Conclusions: Our study was not able to remove the doubts about the benefits of PRP in patellar tendinopathy, confirming ambiguous certainties. Further investigations are needed to assess its effectiveness


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    In vivo biomechanical investigations of human movement are needed to better understand function and injury mechanism of the musculoskeletal system and to validate models or methods that otherwise could not be validated. In this report, we showcase two biomechanical approaches that use in vivo experiments to directly measure skin movement artefacts and the role of hamstring neuromuscular control in protecting the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The study on skin movement artefacts revealed that surface markers provided kinematics which can present repeatable patterns within a participant for various movements. However these repeatable patterns must not be misinterpreted as accurately representing skeletal kinematics, at least beyond the sagittal plane of movement. In the second investigation the neuromuscular control of the hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles showed a protective mechanism to prevent excessive ACL elongation, whereas the quadriceps muscles resisted against the collapsing of the knee joint after foot impact with the ground. This paper highlights the value of in vivo experimentation in contributing to our understanding of biomechanical functions or processes

    Tablet splitting in elderly patients with dementia: The case of quetiapine

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    Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic approved for treating schizophrenia, bipolar depression, and mania but is frequently used in an off-label manner to control the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in elderly patients with dementia. Due to the need to personalize doses for elderly patients with dementia, quetiapine tablet manipulation is widespread in hospital settings, long-term care facilities, and patient homes. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the different splitting techniques on quetiapine fumarate tablets by analysing the obtained sub-divided tablets and to discuss compliance with the European Pharmacopoeia limits on whole and split tablets. Quetiapine fumarate tablets of two dose strengths were taken at random (in a number able to assure a power of 0.8 during statistical comparison) and were split with a kitchen knife or tablet cutter. The weight and the drug content were determined for each half tablet. The obtained data were compared to the European Pharmacopoeia limits. The differences between the different splitting techniques were statistically tested. Data showed that split tablets, independently of the dose strength and the technique employed, were not compliant with the European Pharmacopoeia specifications for both entire and subdivided tablets in terms of weight and content uniformity. Thus, such a common practice could have potential effects on treatment efficacy and toxicity, especially when also considering the fragility of the elderly target population in which polypharmacotherapy is very common. These results indicate a compelling need for flexible quetiapine formulations that can assure more accurate dose personalization


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    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung and its pathophysiology is initiated by mast cell activation in response to the antigen binding to IgE receptor as well as by TH2 cell activation. Mast cells are well established effector cells in asthma where they exacerbate the inflammatory response, playing a key role in early phase, degranulating and increasing histamine. Human mast cells possess high affinity IgE receptors and are ubiquitous but predominantly localized in mucosal and connective tissue and are distributed along blood vessels. There are two types of mast cells: connective tissue mast cells (TC) and mucosal mast cells (T mast cells). TC mast cells contain more heparin, whereas T mast cells contain more chondroitin sulfate. In asthma, mast cell activation can trigger degranulation, releasing secretory granule complex and preformed mediators, such as histamine and proteases, along with the synthesis of leukotrines and prostaglandins, and induction of cytokines and chemokines. Leukotrine inhibitors and omalizumab, which inhibits IgE, both relieve the asthma exacerbation when administered to humans and permit to reduce the use of other drugs. The release of cytokines by mast cells, such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-33, participate in the pathogenesis of asthma. Stress worsens asthma, and this effect is also mediated by mast cell activation through the release of cytokines. Administration of IL-33 in experimental animals provokes pathological effects in the mucosal tissues and augments antibody IgE and IgA in blood vessels. Here, we report the impact of mast cell biology in asthma pathogenesis

    Transapical off-pump echo-guided mitral valve repair with neochordae implantation mid-term outcomes

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    Background: The NeoChord echo-guided transapical beating heart repair is a promising early-stage minimally invasive surgical procedure for degenerative mitral valve (MV) regurgitation (DMR) correction. The technique has been improved since its inception following procedure standardization, patient selection optimization, and learning curve stabilization. We hereby present the mid-term clinical results through three years of our large single center experience. Methods: All consecutive patients with severe symptomatic DMR due to prolapse or flail of one or both mitral leaflets that underwent the NeoChord procedure between November 2013 and June 2019 were included. Patients were categorized according to MV anatomy; Type A isolated central posterior leaflet prolapse and/or flail, Type B posterior multi-segment prolapse and/or flail, Type C anterior and/or bi-leaflet prolapse or flail, Type D paracommissural prolapse and/or flail and/or significant leaflet and/or annular calcifications. Patients underwent clinical and echocardiographic follow-up at one, three, six, twelve months and yearly thereafter. Clinical outcomes and the composite primary endpoint (patient success) were defined according to Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium (MVARC) criteria. Mitral regurgitation (MR) severity was graded as absent, mild, moderate and severe according to American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Results: Two hundred and three patients were included; median follow-up was 24 months [interquartile range (IQR), 9–36]. Median age was 64 years (IQR, 54–74 years), median Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Predicted Risk of Mortality (PROM) was 0.60% (IQR, 0.32–1.44%). There were 106 Type A patients (52.2%), 68 Type B (33.5%), 16 Type C (7.9%), and 13 Type D (6.4%). Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival was 99.0%±0.7% at one and two years and 94.0%±2.9% at three years. At one-year follow-up patient success was 91.2%±2.0% and 111 patients (74%) presented a residual MR mild or less (1+). At three-year follow-up patient success was 81.2%±3.8% and 32 patients (64%) had a residual MR mild or less (1+). Patient success was significantly different according to anatomical type (P=0.001). Echocardiographic analysis showed a significant acute left ventricle and left atrial reverse remodeling that was maintained up to three years. Conclusions: The NeoChord echo-guided transapical beating heart repair procedure demonstrated good clinical outcomes and echocardiographic results up to three-year follow-up

    Role of mast cells in atherosclerosis: a classical inflammatory disease.

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    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease and hyperlipidaemia is one of the main risk factors for aging, hypertension and diabetes. Variance in plasma LDL cholesterol concentration may be associated with differences in cardiovascular disease risk and high levels of lipids are associated with increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. Macrophages, which generate pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-alpha), are deeply involved in atherosclerosis, as well as mast cells which generate several cytokines, including IL-6 and IFN-gamma, and chemokines such as eotaxin, MCP-1 and RANTES involved in monocyte recruitment and differentiation in the arterial wall. In addition, mast cells participate in lipid retention and vascular cell remodeling, and are mediators of innate and adaptive immunity during atherosclerosis. Mast cells which accumulate in the human arterial intima and adventitia during atherosclerotic plaque progression, release vasoactive and angiogenic compounds, and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as arachidonic acid metabolites, histamine, cytokines/chemokines, platelet activating factor (PAF) and proteolytic enzymes. Mast cells can be activated by pro-inflammatory stimuli, including cytokines, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia, and trigger the endothelial expression of adhesion molecules such as P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and chemokines which mediate the recruitment and adhesion of leukocytes. The participation of mast cells in atherosclerosis is still an enigma and it may be of therapeutic interest to clarify this process
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