121 research outputs found

    Enhancing the Behaviorial Fidelity of Synthetic Entities with Human Behavior Models

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    Human-behavior models (HBMs) and artificial intelligence systems are called on to fill a wide variety of roles in military simulations. Each of the off the shelf human behavior models available today focuses on a specific area of human cognition and behavior. While this makes these HBMs very effective in specific roles, none are single-handedly capable of supporting the full range of roles necessary in an urban military scenario involving asymmetric opponents and potentially hostile civilians. The research presented here explores the integration of three separate human behavior models to support three different roles for synthetic participants in a single simulated scenario. The Soar architecture, focusing on knowledge-based, goal-directed behavior, supports a fire team of U.S. Army Rangers. PMFServ, focusing on a physiologically/stress constrained model of decision-making based on emotional utility, supports civilians that may become hostile. Finally, AI.Implant, focusing on individual and crowd navigation, supports a small group of opposing militia. Due to the autonomy and wide range of behavior supported by the three human behavior models, the scenario is more flexible and dynamic than many military simulations and commercial computer games

    Eicosapentaenoic Acid Is Associated with Decreased Incidence of Alzheimer’s Dementia in the Oldest Old

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    Background. Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have different effects on cognitive health due to their anti- or pro-inflammatory properties. Methods. We aimed to prospectively examine the relationships between n-3 and n-6 PUFA contents in serum phospholipids with incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer‚Äôs disease dementia (AD). We included 1264 non-demented participants aged 84 ¬Ī 3 years from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe) multicenter-cohort study. We investigated whether fatty acid concentrations in serum phospholipids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), dihomo-ő≥-linolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA), were associated with risk of incident all-cause dementia and AD. Results. During the follow-up window of seven years, 233 participants developed dementia. Higher concentrations of EPA were associated with a lower incidence of AD (hazard ratio (HR) 0.76 (95% CI 0.63; 0.93)). We also observed that higher concentrations of EPA were associated with a decreased risk for all-cause dementia (HR 0.76 (95% CI 0.61; 0.94)) and AD (HR 0.66 (95% CI 0.51; 0.85)) among apolipoprotein E őĶ4 (APOE őĶ4) non-carriers but not among APOE őĶ4 carriers. No other fatty acids were significantly associated with AD or dementia. Conclusions. Higher concentrations of EPA were associated with a lower risk of incident AD. This further supports a beneficial role of n-3 PUFAs for cognitive health in old age

    Resistant pathogens in biliary obstruction: Importance of cultures to guide antibiotic therapy

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    Background . Cholangitis, infection of the bile ducts, is a serious condition that necessitates prompt and efficacious treatment for a good clinical outcome. A single center retrospective study of cholangitis was conducted to better define the spectrum of responsible pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivities. Methods . We studied all patients at our hospital who had cholangitis from January 1998 to June 2004. Patients were identified by ICD-9 codes and the cause of the cholangitis, the treatment and culture data were noted by review of the medical record. Results . Thirty patients presented with cholangitis as noted by the clinical symptoms of jaundice, fever and abdominal pain. The cause of the biliary obstruction was gallstones in 18 patients, benign biliary strictures in 5 and malignant obstruction in 7. All the patients with malignant obstruction with cholangitis had stents; there were no cases of cholangitis in malignant obstruction unless prior instrumentation had been performed. The most common isolates were Enterococcus>E. coli>Enterobacter>Klebsiella. Sixty-four percent of blood cultures and all but one of the bile cultures grew organisms. Seventy-two percent of patients had positive blood cultures with at least one resistant organism present and 36% had organisms resistant to multiple antibiotics. Fifty percent of patients with benign biliary disease and positive blood cultures had multiple organisms growing in their blood. Three-quarters of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and one-quarter of isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Resistant organisms were found regardless of the cause of the biliary obstruction. Discussion . For all causes of cholangitis, there is a high incidence of positive blood cultures and a high rate of antibiotic resistance. For optimal treatment, blood and/or bile cultures should be routinely performed to optimize antibiotic therapy.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/73375/1/13651820510028792.pd

    Fornix fractional anisotropy mediates the association between Mediterranean diet adherence and memory four years later in older adults without dementia

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    Here, we investigated whether fractional anisotropy (FA) of hippocampus-relevant white-matter tracts mediates the association between baseline Mediterranean diet adherence (MeDiAd) and verbal episodic memory over four years. Participants were healthy older adults with and without subjective cognitive decline and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment from the DELCODE cohort study (n = 376; age: 71.47 ¬Ī 6.09 years; 48.7 % female). MeDiAd and diffusion data were obtained at baseline. Verbal episodic memory was assessed at baseline and four yearly follow-ups. The associations between baseline MeDiAd and white matter, and verbal episodic memory's mean and rate of change over four years were tested with latent growth curve modeling. Baseline MeDiAd was associated with verbal episodic memory four years later (95 % confidence interval, CI [0.01, 0.32]) but not with its rate of change over this period. Baseline Fornix FA mediated - and, thus, explained - that association (95 % CI [0.002, 0.09]). Fornix FA may be an appropriate response biomarker of Mediterranean diet interventions on verbal memory in older adults.</p

    Perspectives on ethnic and racial disparities in Alzheimer\u27s disease and related dementias: Update and areas of immediate need

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    Alzheimer\u27s disease and related dementias (ADRDs) are a global crisis facing the aging population and society as a whole. With the numbers of people with ADRDs predicted to rise dramatically across the world, the scientific community can no longer neglect the need for research focusing on ADRDs among underrepresented ethnoracial diverse groups. The Alzheimer\u27s Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer\u27s Research and Treatment (ISTAART; alz.org/ISTAART) comprises a number of professional interest areas (PIAs), each focusing on a major scientific area associated with ADRDs. We leverage the expertise of the existing international cadre of ISTAART scientists and experts to synthesize a cross-PIA white paper that provides both a concise ‚Äústate-of-the-science‚ÄĚ report of ethnoracial factors across PIA foci and updated recommendations to address immediate needs to advance ADRD science across ethnoracial populations. ¬© 2018 The Author

    Genetic landscape of congenital insensitivity to pain and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies

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    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. Due to the rarity of the diseases and findings based mainly on single case reports or small case series, knowledge about these disorders is limited. Here, we describe the molecular workup of a large international cohort of CIP/HSAN patients including patients from normally under-represented countries. We identify 80 previously unreported pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in a total of 73 families in the >20 known CIP/HSAN-associated genes. The data expand the spectrum of disease-relevant alterations in CIP/HSAN, including novel variants in previously rarely recognized entities such as ATL3-, FLVCR1- and NGF-associated neuropathies and previously under-recognized mutation types such as larger deletions. In silico predictions, heterologous expression studies, segregation analyses and metabolic tests helped to overcome limitations of current variant classification schemes that often fail to categorize a variant as disease-related or benign. The study sheds light on the genetic causes and disease-relevant changes within individual genes in CIP/HSAN. This is becoming increasingly important with emerging clinical trials investigating subtype or gene-specific treatment strategies
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