1,059 research outputs found

    La théorie des opportunités et l’erreur de généralisation

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    Crime relationships are often inconsistent at different levels of aggregation for good theoretical reasons. That is why we should avoid committing the fallacy of composition, namely, drawing inferences between individuals and aggregates or from one level of aggregation to another. The routine activity approach becomes part of the solution

    Travelling as a Risky Business

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    Travelling is risky business as confirmed by empirical research that differs from country to country. The crime level is determined by the complexity of the economic, social, and cultural factors. In developing countries, property crime is stimulated by poverty. In more prosperous countries, opportunities lead to a higher level of crime rate. There is a need to have detailed sound criminological information in a standardized format

    An auditory brainstem implant for treatment of unilateral tinnitus:protocol for an interventional pilot study

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    INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus may have a very severe impact on the quality of life. Unfortunately, for many patients, a satisfactory treatment modality is lacking. The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) was originally indicated for hearing restoration in patients with non-functional cochlear nerves, for example, in neurofibromatosis type II. In analogy to a cochlear implant (CI), it has been demonstrated that an ABI may reduce tinnitus as a beneficial side effect. For tinnitus treatment, an ABI may have an advantage over a CI, as cochlear implantation can harm inner ear structures due to its invasiveness, while an ABI is presumed to not damage anatomical structures. This is the first study to implant an ABI to investigate its effect on intractable tinnitus. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this pilot study, 10 adults having incapacitating unilateral intractable tinnitus and ipsilateral severe hearing loss will have an ABI implanted. The ABI is switched on 6 weeks after implantation, followed by several fitting sessions aimed at finding an optimal stimulation strategy. The primary outcome will be the change in Tinnitus Functioning Index. Secondary outcomes will be tinnitus burden and quality of life (using Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires), tinnitus characteristics (using Visual Analogue Scale, a tinnitus analysis), safety, audiometric and vestibular function. The end point is set at 1 year after implantation. Follow-up will continue until 5 years after implantation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University Medical Centre Groningen, The Netherlands (METc 2015/479). The trial is registered at www.clinicialtrials.gov and will be updated if amendments are made. Results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02630589. TRIAL STATUS: Inclusion of first patient in November 2017. Data collection is in progress. Trial is open for further inclusion. The trial ends at 5 years after inclusion of the last patient

    Surgical clipping as the preferred treatment for aneurysms of the middle cerebral artery

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    In recent years the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms (coiling) has progressively gained recognition, particularly after the publication of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) in 2002. Despite the fact that in ISAT middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms were clearly underrepresented, the study is often used as an argument to favor coiling above surgery in MCA aneurysms. Taken into account that MCA aneurysms are very well accessible for surgery, a contemporary assessment of the benefits of a preferred surgical strategy for MCA aneurysms was performed in a tertiary neurovascular referral center. A prospectively kept single-center database of 151 consecutive patients with an MCA aneurysm was reviewed over a 6-year period (2001-2006). Long-term follow-up after surgical treatment of a ruptured MCA aneurysm was obtained in 74 out of 77 (96%) patients. The outcome was compared with relevant series in the literature. After a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, 59 out of 74 surgically treated patients (80%) with a ruptured MCA aneurysm had a good outcome (mRankin 0-2). All patients with an unruptured MCA aneurysm also had a good outcome after clipping. This is well-matched with the findings of the literature search, and competitive with the endovascular results. Surgical clipping is recommended as the principal treatment strategy for MCA aneurysms. This is not only ethically defendable in view of the surgical results but also in line with a strategy to maintain surgical experience within centralized neurovascular centers

    The Diagnostic Value of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Predict Delayed Cerebral Ischemia and Unfavorable Outcome After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    OBJECTIVE: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive tool to monitor cerebral regional oxygen saturation. Impairment of microvascular circulation with subsequent cerebral hypoxia during delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is associated with poor functional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, NIRS could be useful to predict the risk for DCI and functional outcome. However, only limited data is available on NIRS regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) distribution in SAH. The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of NIRS rSO2 values in non-traumatic SAH patients with the occurrence of DCI and functional outcome at two months. In addition, the predictive value of NIRS rSO2 was compared with the previously validated SAFIRE grade (derived from Size of the aneurysm, Age, FIsher grade, world federation of neurosurgical societies after REsuscitation).METHODS: In this study, the rSO2 distribution of patient with and without DCI after SAH are compared. The optimal cutoff points to predict DCI and outcome are assessed, and its predictive value is compared to the SAFIRE grade.RESULTS: Out of 41 patients, 12 developed DCI, and 9 had unfavorable outcome at 60 days. Prediction of DCI with NIRS had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77 (95%CI 0.62-0.92; p=0.0028) with an optimal cutoff point of 65% (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.45). Prediction of favorable outcome with NIRS had an AUC of 0.86 (95%CI 0.74-0.98; p=0.0003) with an optimal cutoff point of 63% (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.63). Regression analysis showed that NIRS rSO2 score is complementary to the SAFIRE grade.CONCLUSION: NIRS rSO2 monitoring in patients with SAH may improve prediction of DCI and clinical outcome after SAH.</p

    The Diagnostic Value of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Predict Delayed Cerebral Ischemia and Unfavorable Outcome After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    OBJECTIVE: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive tool to monitor cerebral regional oxygen saturation. Impairment of microvascular circulation with subsequent cerebral hypoxia during delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is associated with poor functional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, NIRS could be useful to predict the risk for DCI and functional outcome. However, only limited data is available on NIRS regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) distribution in SAH. The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of NIRS rSO2 values in non-traumatic SAH patients with the occurrence of DCI and functional outcome at two months. In addition, the predictive value of NIRS rSO2 was compared with the previously validated SAFIRE grade (derived from Size of the aneurysm, Age, FIsher grade, world federation of neurosurgical societies after REsuscitation).METHODS: In this study, the rSO2 distribution of patient with and without DCI after SAH are compared. The optimal cutoff points to predict DCI and outcome are assessed, and its predictive value is compared to the SAFIRE grade.RESULTS: Out of 41 patients, 12 developed DCI, and 9 had unfavorable outcome at 60 days. Prediction of DCI with NIRS had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77 (95%CI 0.62-0.92; p=0.0028) with an optimal cutoff point of 65% (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.45). Prediction of favorable outcome with NIRS had an AUC of 0.86 (95%CI 0.74-0.98; p=0.0003) with an optimal cutoff point of 63% (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.63). Regression analysis showed that NIRS rSO2 score is complementary to the SAFIRE grade.CONCLUSION: NIRS rSO2 monitoring in patients with SAH may improve prediction of DCI and clinical outcome after SAH.</p

    The Diagnostic Value of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Predict Delayed Cerebral Ischemia and Unfavorable Outcome After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    OBJECTIVE: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive tool to monitor cerebral regional oxygen saturation. Impairment of microvascular circulation with subsequent cerebral hypoxia during delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is associated with poor functional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, NIRS could be useful to predict the risk for DCI and functional outcome. However, only limited data is available on NIRS regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) distribution in SAH. The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of NIRS rSO2 values in non-traumatic SAH patients with the occurrence of DCI and functional outcome at two months. In addition, the predictive value of NIRS rSO2 was compared with the previously validated SAFIRE grade (derived from Size of the aneurysm, Age, FIsher grade, world federation of neurosurgical societies after REsuscitation).METHODS: In this study, the rSO2 distribution of patient with and without DCI after SAH are compared. The optimal cutoff points to predict DCI and outcome are assessed, and its predictive value is compared to the SAFIRE grade.RESULTS: Out of 41 patients, 12 developed DCI, and 9 had unfavorable outcome at 60 days. Prediction of DCI with NIRS had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77 (95%CI 0.62-0.92; p=0.0028) with an optimal cutoff point of 65% (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.45). Prediction of favorable outcome with NIRS had an AUC of 0.86 (95%CI 0.74-0.98; p=0.0003) with an optimal cutoff point of 63% (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.63). Regression analysis showed that NIRS rSO2 score is complementary to the SAFIRE grade.CONCLUSION: NIRS rSO2 monitoring in patients with SAH may improve prediction of DCI and clinical outcome after SAH.</p

    The Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Treatment Score as a Predictor of Aneurysm Growth or Rupture

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    Background and purpose: The Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Treatment Score (UIATS) was built to harmonize the treatment decision making on unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Therefore, it may also function as a predictor of aneurysm progression. In this study, we aimed to assess the validity of the UIATS model to identify aneurysms at risk of growth or rupture during follow-up. Methods: We calculated the UIATS for a consecutive series of conservatively treated unruptured intracranial aneurysms, included in our prospectively kept neurovascular database. Computed tomography angiography and/or magnetic resonance angiography imaging at baseline and during follow-up was analyzed to detect aneurysm growth. We defined rupture as a cerebrospinal fluid or computed tomography-proven subarachnoid hemorrhage. We calculated the area under the receiver operator curve, sensitivity, and specificity, to determine the performance of the UIATS model. Results: We included 214 consecutive patients with 277 unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Aneurysms were followed for a median period of 1.3 years (range 0.3-11.7 years). During follow-up, 17 aneurysms enlarged (6.1%), and two aneurysms ruptured (0.7%). The UIATS model showed a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 44%. The area under the receiver operator curve was 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.46-0.79). Conclusions: Our observational study involving consecutive patients with an unruptured intracranial aneurysm showed poor performance of the UIATS model to predict aneurysm growth or rupture during follow-up

    The Diagnostic Value of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Predict Delayed Cerebral Ischemia and Unfavorable Outcome After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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    OBJECTIVE: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive tool to monitor cerebral regional oxygen saturation. Impairment of microvascular circulation with subsequent cerebral hypoxia during delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is associated with poor functional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, NIRS could be useful to predict the risk for DCI and functional outcome. However, only limited data is available on NIRS regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) distribution in SAH. The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of NIRS rSO2 values in non-traumatic SAH patients with the occurrence of DCI and functional outcome at two months. In addition, the predictive value of NIRS rSO2 was compared with the previously validated SAFIRE grade (derived from Size of the aneurysm, Age, FIsher grade, world federation of neurosurgical societies after REsuscitation).METHODS: In this study, the rSO2 distribution of patient with and without DCI after SAH are compared. The optimal cutoff points to predict DCI and outcome are assessed, and its predictive value is compared to the SAFIRE grade.RESULTS: Out of 41 patients, 12 developed DCI, and 9 had unfavorable outcome at 60 days. Prediction of DCI with NIRS had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77 (95%CI 0.62-0.92; p=0.0028) with an optimal cutoff point of 65% (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.45). Prediction of favorable outcome with NIRS had an AUC of 0.86 (95%CI 0.74-0.98; p=0.0003) with an optimal cutoff point of 63% (sensitivity 1.00; specificity 0.63). Regression analysis showed that NIRS rSO2 score is complementary to the SAFIRE grade.CONCLUSION: NIRS rSO2 monitoring in patients with SAH may improve prediction of DCI and clinical outcome after SAH.</p

    Chronic aspirin treatment affects collagen deposition in non-infarcted myocardium during remodeling after coronary artery ligation in the rat

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    Low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid; ASA), inhibiting platelet thromboxane production in favor of endothelium formation of prostaglandins, is successfully used as primary or secondary prophylaxis against myocardial infarction. Although prognosis may be improved, effects of long-term ASA treatment on wound healing and cardiac remodeling are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to mimic the clinical situation by inducing myocardial infarction in low-dose ASA (25 mg/kg/day, i.p.) pretreated rats, and to determine effects on plasma eicosanoid levels, cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition, and left ventricular function during continued ASA treatment. The effects of this dose were verified to selectively inhibit platelet thromboxane production, and lower plasma levels of thromboxane, but did not affect plasma levels of prostacyclin and prostaglandin E2during the acute inflammatory stage following myocardial infarction. As measured by heart dry weight/body weight, cardiac hypertrophy was not affected by ASA treatment. However, interstitial fibrosis in the spared myocardium as well as perivascular fibrosis, associated with infarction-induced cardiac remodeling, were affected by ASA treatment. Replacement fibrosis in the infarct itself, considered as representing wound healing, was not significantly influenced by ASA treatment. Wall thinning following infarction was not aggravated, nor did treatment influence left ventricular cavity diameter in a relaxed state. Results fromin vitroleft ventricular function measurements showed no effects on left ventricular peak velocity of contraction or relaxation after ASA treatment. In conclusion, although low-dose ASA may not be expected to have anti-inflammatory action, it did influence post-infarct cardiac remodeling by affecting interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. ASA treatment did not have effects onin vitroleft ventricular dysfunction
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