1,854 research outputs found

    Chronic hyponatremia in a patient with renal salt wasting and without cerebral disease: relationship between RSW, risk of fractures and cognitive impairment

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    Renal salt wasting syndrome (RSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume (ECV). Differentiation of this disorder from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), a common cause of hyponatremia, can be difficult because both can present with hyponatremia and concentrated urine with natriuresis. Our clinical case about a 78-year-old woman with a recent fracture of the right femur not only confirms that this syndrome can occur in patients without intracranial pathologies (CT documented), but depicts how the hyponatremia caused by RSW can show a chronic, oscillating course. This is an interesting point of view because it suggests to us to consider RSW in the differential diagnosis of patients with chronic hyponatremia

    The use of ultrasound in clinical setting for children affected by NAFLD. is it safe and accurate?

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    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become over the last decade the most common form of chronic liver disease in children and adults. Thus, establishing the diagnosis of NAFLD is of utmost importance and represents a major challenge as the disease is generally silent and the current gold standard for diagnosis is an invasive liver biopsy, a procedure that is not suitable for screening purposes. Many non-invasive diagnostic tools have been evaluated so far. Recently the utility of ultrasonography for non-invasive diagnosis and estimation of hepatic steatosis has been demonstrated in a large prospective pediatric study

    Innovative airplane ground handling system for green operations

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    The aim of this work is to develop a new concept of taxiing, in order to reduce the pollution in terms of noise and gas emission and to introduce a higher level of safety during ground operations. In the area close to the airport gates, the airplane ground handlings are currently performed through the airplane engines, which have the task of providing the trust necessary to move the airplane to the runway. Pollutant emissions and the noise level near the gates, however, could be drastically reduced by introducing an innovative autonomous tractor called CHAT (Clean Hydrogen Autonomous Tractor), developed from the standard pushback tractor. The ground operations could be basically modified by extending the time in which the airplane engines are idle and the airplane is towed by the tractors powered by renewable energy

    Atherosclerosis and Its Related Laboratory Biomarkers

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    Atherosclerosis constitutes a persistent inflammatory ailment, serving as the predominant underlying condition for coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), and cerebrovascular disease. The progressive buildup of plaques within the walls of medium- and large-caliber arteries characterizes the atherosclerotic process. This accumulation results in significant narrowing that impedes blood flow, leading to critical tissue oxygen deficiency. Spontaneous blockage of thrombotic vessels can precipitate stroke and myocardial infarction, which are complications representing the primary global causes of mortality. Present-day models for predicting cardiovascular risk incorporate conventional risk factors to gauge the likelihood of cardiovascular events over a ten-year span. In recent times, researchers have identified serum biomarkers associated with an elevated risk of atherosclerotic events. Many of these biomarkers, whether used individually or in combination, have been integrated into risk prediction models to assess whether their inclusion enhances predictive accuracy. In this review, we have conducted a comprehensive analysis of the most recently published literature concerning serum biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis. We have explored the potential utility of incorporating these markers in guiding clinical decisions

    Post Thoracotomy Pain Syndrome

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    Innovative airplane ground handling system for green operations

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    The aim of this work is to develop a new concept of taxiing, in order to reduce the pollution in terms of noise and gas emission and to introduce a higher level of safety during ground operations. In the area close to the airport gates, the airplane ground handlings are currently performed through the airplane engines, which have the task of providing the trust necessary to move the airplane to the runway. Pollutant emissions and the noise level near the gates, however, could be drastically reduced by introducing an innovative autonomous tractor called CHAT (Clean Hydrogen Autonomous Tractor), developed from the standard pushback tractor. The ground operations could be basically modified by extending the time in which the airplane engines are idle and the airplane is towed by the tractors powered by renewable energy

    Photometry of the Oort Cloud comet C/2009 P1(Garradd): pre-perihelion observations at 5.7 and 2.5 AU

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    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the characterization of the general properties of the Long Period Comets (LPCs) family, and in particular to report on the dust environment of comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd). The comet was observed at two epochs pre-perihelion, at ~6 AU and at ~2.5 AU: broad-band images have been used to investigate its coma morphology and properties and to model the dust production rate. Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) is one of the most active and “dust producing” LPCs ever observed, even at the large heliocentric distance rh~6 AU. Its coma presents a complex morphology, with subtle structures underlying the classical fan-shaped tail, and, at rh~2.5 AU, also jet-like structures and spiralling outflows. In the reference aperture of radius ρ=5°×104 km, the R-Afρ is 3693±156 cm and 6368±412 cm, in August 2010 (rh~6 AU) and July 2011 (rh~2.5 AU), respectively. The application of a first order photometric model, under realistic assumptions on grain geometric albedo, power-law dust size distribution, phase darkening function and grain dust outflow velocity, yielded a measure of the dust production rate for the two epochs of observation of Qd=7.27×102 kg/s and Qd=1.37×103 kg/s, respectively, for a reference outflow dust velocity of vsmall=25 m/s for small (0.1–10 ”m) grains and vlarge=1 m/s for large (10 ”m–1 cm) grains. These results suggest that comet Garradd is one of the most active minor bodies observed in recent years, highly contributing to the continuous replenishment of the Interplanetary Dust Complex also in the outer Solar System, and pose important constraints on the mechanism(s) driving the cometary activity at large heliocentric distances

    The Natriuretic Peptide System: A Single Entity, Pleiotropic Effects

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    In the modern scientific landscape, natriuretic peptides are a complex and interesting network of molecules playing pleiotropic effects on many organs and tissues, ensuring the maintenance of homeostasis mainly in the cardiovascular system and regulating the water-salt balance. The characterization of their receptors, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which they exert their action, and the discovery of new peptides in the last period have made it possible to increasingly feature the physiological and pathophysiological role of the members of this family, also allowing to hypothesize the possible settings for using these molecules for therapeutic purposes. This literature review traces the history of the discovery and characterization of the key players among the natriuretic peptides, the scientific trials performed to ascertain their physiological role, and the applications of this knowledge in the clinical field, leaving a glimpse of new and exciting possibilities for their use in the treatment of diseases

    How should eosinophilic cystitis be treated in patients with chronic granulomatous disease?

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    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency resulting from the absence or malfunction of oxidative mechanism in phagocytic cells. The disease is due to a mutation in one of four genes that encode subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. Affected patients experience severe infections and granuloma formation due to exuberant inflammatory responses. Some evidence suggests that eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is included in the spectrum of inflammatory manifestations. EC is an inflammatory disease, rare in childhood, which may require different, nonstandardized therapeutic approaches, ranging from antihistamines to cyclosporine
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