11,325 research outputs found

    Evaluating labor market policy in the Netherlands

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    Theory of Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering by Collective Magnetic Excitations

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    I present a tractable theory for the Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) spectral function of magnons. The low-energy transition operator is written as a product of local spin operators times fundamental x-ray absorption spectra. This leads to simple selection rules for the magnetic cross section. The scattering cross section linear (quadratic) in spin operators is proportional to the magnetic circular (linear) dichroic absorption. RIXS is a novel tool to measure magnetic quasi particles (magnons) and the incoherent spectral weight, as well as multiple magnons up to very high energy losses, in small samples, thin films and multilayers, complementary to Neutron scattering

    Kinetic cross coupling between non-conserved and conserved fields in phase field models

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    We present a phase field model for isothermal transformations of two component alloys that includes Onsager kinetic cross coupling between the non-conserved phase field and the conserved concentration field. We also provide the reduction of the phase field model to the corresponding macroscopic description of the free boundary problem. The reduction is given in a general form. Additionally we use an explicit example of a phase field model and check that the reduced macroscopic description, in the range of its applicability, is in excellent agreement with direct phase field simulations. The relevance of the newly introduced terms to solute trapping is also discussed

    A pattern-recognition theory of search in expert problem solving

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    Understanding how look-ahead search and pattern recognition interact is one of the important research questions in the study of expert problem-solving. This paper examines the implications of the template theory (Gobet & Simon, 1996a), a recent theory of expert memory, on the theory of problem solving in chess. Templates are "chunks" (Chase & Simon, 1973) that have evolved into more complex data structures and that possess slots allowing values to be encoded rapidly. Templates may facilitate search in three ways: (a) by allowing information to be stored into LTM rapidly; (b) by allowing a search in the template space in addition to a search in the move space; and (c) by compensating loss in the "mind's eye" due to interference and decay. A computer model implementing the main ideas of the theory is presented, and simulations of its search behaviour are discussed. The template theory accounts for the slight skill difference in average depth of search found in chess players, as well as for other empirical data

    Coalgebraic Geometric Logic

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    Symmetry Protected Topological Order in Open Quantum Systems

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    We systematically investigate the robustness of symmetry protected topological (SPT) order in open quantum systems by studying the evolution of string order parameters and other probes under noisy channels. We find that one-dimensional SPT order is robust against noisy couplings to the environment that satisfy a strong symmetry condition, while it is destabilized by noise that satisfies only a weak symmetry condition, which generalizes the notion of symmetry for closed systems. We also discuss "transmutation" of SPT phases into other SPT phases of equal or lesser complexity, under noisy channels that satisfy twisted versions of the strong symmetry condition

    Onsager approach to 1D solidification problem and its relation to phase field description

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    We give a general phenomenological description of the steady state 1D front propagation problem in two cases: the solidification of a pure material and the isothermal solidification of two component dilute alloys. The solidification of a pure material is controlled by the heat transport in the bulk and the interface kinetics. The isothermal solidification of two component alloys is controlled by the diffusion in the bulk and the interface kinetics. We find that the condition of positive-definiteness of the symmetric Onsager matrix of interface kinetic coefficients still allows an arbitrary sign of the slope of the velocity-concentration line near the solidus in the alloy problem or of the velocity-temperature line in the case of solidification of a pure material. This result offers a very simple and elegant way to describe the interesting phenomenon of a possible non-single-value behavior of velocity versus concentration which has previously been discussed by different approaches. We also discuss the relation of this Onsager approach to the thin interface limit of the phase field description.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure, submitted to Physical Review
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