1,080 research outputs found

    Allosteric activation unveils protein-mass modulation of ATP phosphoribosyltransferase product release

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    Funding: This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) [Grant BB/M010996/1] via an EASTBIO Doctoral Training Partnership studentship to B.J.R.Heavy-isotope substitution into enzymes slows down bond vibrations and may alter transition-state barrier crossing probability if this is coupled to fast protein motions. ATP phosphoribosyltransferase from Acinetobacter baumannii is a multi-protein complex where the regulatory protein HisZ allosterically enhances catalysis by the catalytic protein HisGS. This is accompanied by a shift in rate-limiting step from chemistry to product release. Here we report that isotope-labelling of HisGS has no effect on the nonactivated reaction, which involves negative activation heat capacity, while HisZ-activated HisGS catalytic rate decreases in a strictly mass-dependent fashion across five different HisGS masses, at low temperatures. Surprisingly, the effect is not linked to the chemical step, but to fast motions governing product release in the activated enzyme. Disruption of a specific enzyme-product interaction abolishes the isotope effects. Results highlight how altered protein mass perturbs allosterically modulated thermal motions relevant to the catalytic cycle beyond the chemical step.Peer reviewe

    Human 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-phosphate N-hydrolase 1 : the catalytic roles of Tyr24 and Asp80

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    The human enzyme 2′-deoxynucleoside 5′-phosphate N-hydrolase 1 (HsDNPH1) catalyses the hydrolysis of 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine 5′-phosphate to generate 5-hydroxymethyluracil and 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate via a covalent 5-phospho-2-deoxyribosylated enzyme intermediate. HsDNPH1 is a promising target for inhibitor development towards anticancer drugs. Here, site-directed mutagenesis of conserved active-site residues, followed by HPLC analysis of the reaction and steady-state kinetics are employed to reveal the importance of each of these residues in catalysis, and the reaction pH-dependence is perturbed by each mutation. Solvent deuterium isotope effects indicate no rate-limiting proton transfers. Crystal structures of D80N-HsDNPH1 in unliganded and substrate-bound states, and of unliganded D80A- and Y24F-HsDNPH1 offer atomic level insights into substrate binding and catalysis. The results reveal a network of hydrogen bonds involving the substrate and the E104-Y24-D80 catalytic triad and are consistent with a proposed mechanism whereby D80 is important for substrate positioning, for helping modulate E104 nucleophilicity, and as the general acid in the first half-reaction. Y24 positions E104 for catalysis and prevents a catalytically disruptive close contact between E104 and D80.Peer reviewe

    Crystal structure, steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetics of Acinetobacter baumannii ATP phosphoribosyltransferase

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    Funding: This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) (grant BB/M010996/1) via an EASTBIO Doctoral Training Partnership studentship to B.J.R.The first step of histidine biosynthesis in Acinetobacter baumannii, the condensation of ATP and 5-phospho-α-d-ribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to produce N1-(5-phospho-β-d-ribosyl)-ATP (PRATP) and pyrophosphate, is catalyzed by the hetero-octameric enzyme ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, a promising target for antibiotic design. The catalytic subunit, HisGS, is allosterically activated upon binding of the regulatory subunit, HisZ, to form the hetero-octameric holoenzyme (ATPPRT), leading to a large increase in kcat. Here, we present the crystal structure of ATPPRT, along with kinetic investigations of the rate-limiting steps governing catalysis in the nonactivated (HisGS) and activated (ATPPRT) forms of the enzyme. A pH-rate profile showed that maximum catalysis is achieved above pH 8.0. Surprisingly, at 25 °C, kcat is higher when ADP replaces ATP as substrate for ATPPRT but not for HisGS. The HisGS-catalyzed reaction is limited by the chemical step, as suggested by the enhancement of kcat when Mg2+ was replaced by Mn2+, and by the lack of a pre-steady-state burst of product formation. Conversely, the ATPPRT-catalyzed reaction rate is determined by PRATP diffusion from the active site, as gleaned from a substantial solvent viscosity effect. A burst of product formation could be inferred from pre-steady-state kinetics, but the first turnover was too fast to be directly observed. Lowering the temperature to 5 °C allowed observation of the PRATP formation burst by ATPPRT. At this temperature, the single-turnover rate constant was significantly higher than kcat, providing additional evidence for a step after chemistry limiting catalysis by ATPPRT. This demonstrates allosteric activation by HisZ accelerates the chemical step.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Human 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-phosphate N-hydrolase 1 : mechanism of 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate hydrolysis

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    Funding: Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre - 2021-01-01.The enzyme 2′-deoxynucleoside 5′-phosphate N-hydrolase 1 (DNPH1) catalyzes the N-ribosidic bond cleavage of 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine 5′-monophosphate to generate 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate and 5-hydroxymethyluracil. DNPH1 accepts other 2′-deoxynucleoside 5′-monophosphates as slow-reacting substrates. DNPH1 inhibition is a promising strategy to overcome resistance to and potentiate anticancer poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. We solved the crystal structure of unliganded human DNPH1 and took advantage of the slow reactivity of 2′-deoxyuridine 5′-monophosphate (dUMP) as a substrate to obtain a crystal structure of the DNPH1:dUMP Michaelis complex. In both structures, the carboxylate group of the catalytic Glu residue, proposed to act as a nucleophile in covalent catalysis, forms an apparent low-barrier hydrogen bond with the hydroxyl group of a conserved Tyr residue. The crystal structures are supported by functional data, with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showing that DNPH1 incubation with dUMP leads to slow yet complete hydrolysis of the substrate. A direct UV-vis absorbance-based assay allowed characterization of DNPH1 kinetics at low dUMP concentrations. A bell-shaped pH-rate profile indicated that acid–base catalysis is operational and that for maximum kcat/KM, two groups with an average pKa of 6.4 must be deprotonated, while two groups with an average pKa of 8.2 must be protonated. A modestly inverse solvent viscosity effect rules out diffusional processes involved in dUMP binding to and possibly uracil release from the enzyme as rate limiting to kcat/KM. Solvent deuterium isotope effects on kcat/KM and kcat were inverse and unity, respectively. A reaction mechanism for dUMP hydrolysis is proposed.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Snapshots of the reaction coordinate of a thermophilic 2'-deoxyribonucleoside/ribonucleoside transferase

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    Funding: P.T. is funded by IBioIC (IBioIC 2020-2-1), and C.M.C. is funded by the Wellcome Trust (217078/Z/19/Z). C.M.C. and D.H. are funded by research grants from NuCana plc..Nucleosides are ubiquitous to life and are required for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and other molecules crucial for cell survival. Despite the notoriously difficult organic synthesis of nucleosides, 2′-deoxynucleoside analogues can interfere with natural DNA replication and repair and are successfully employed as anticancer, antiviral, and antimicrobial compounds. Nucleoside 2′-deoxyribosyltransferase (dNDT) enzymes catalyze transglycosylation via a covalent 2′-deoxyribosylated enzyme intermediate with retention of configuration, having applications in the biocatalytic synthesis of 2′-deoxynucleoside analogues in a single step. Here, we characterize the structure and function of a thermophilic dNDT, the protein from Chroococcidiopsis thermalis (CtNDT). We combined enzyme kinetics with structural and biophysical studies to dissect mechanistic features in the reaction coordinate, leading to product formation. Bell-shaped pH-rate profiles demonstrate activity in a broad pH range of 5.5–9.5, with two very distinct pKa values. A pronounced viscosity effect on the turnover rate indicates a diffusional step, likely product (nucleobase1) release, to be rate-limiting. Temperature studies revealed an extremely curved profile, suggesting a large negative activation heat capacity. We trapped a 2′-fluoro-2′-deoxyarabinosyl-enzyme intermediate by mass spectrometry and determined high-resolution structures of the protein in its unliganded, substrate-bound, ribosylated, 2′-difluoro-2′-deoxyribosylated, and in complex with probable transition-state analogues. We reveal key features underlying (2′-deoxy)ribonucleoside selection, as CtNDT can also use ribonucleosides as substrates, albeit with a lower efficiency. Ribonucleosides are the building blocks of RNA and other key intracellular metabolites participating in energy and metabolism, expanding the scope of use of CtNDT in biocatalysis.Peer reviewe

    Allosteric rescue of catalytically impaired ATP phosphoribosyltransferase variants links protein dynamics to active-site electrostatic preorganisation

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    Funding: This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) [Grant BB/M010996/1] via EASTBIO Doctoral Training Partnership studentships to B. J. R. and G. F., by Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare [Grant 190-0335] and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [Grants 2018.0140 and 2019.0431] to S.C.L.K., and by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme via a Marie Sklodowska-Curie fellowship [Grant 890562] to M.C. The simulations were enabled by resources provided by the Swedish National Infrastructure for Supercomputing (SNIC, UPPMAX), partially funded by the Swedish Research Council [Grant 2016-07213].ATP phosphoribosyltransferase catalyses the first step of histidine biosynthesis and is controlled via a complex allosteric mechanism where the regulatory protein HisZ enhances catalysis by the catalytic protein HisGS while mediating allosteric inhibition by histidine. Activation by HisZ was proposed to position HisGS Arg56 to stabilise departure of the pyrophosphate leaving group. Here we report active-site mutants of HisGS with impaired reaction chemistry which can be allosterically restored by HisZ despite the HisZ:HisGS interface lying ~20 Å away from the active site. MD simulations indicate HisZ binding constrains the dynamics of HisGS to favour a preorganised active site where both Arg56 and Arg32 are poised to stabilise leaving-group departure in WT-HisGS. In the Arg56Ala-HisGS mutant, HisZ modulates Arg32 dynamics so that it can partially compensate for the absence of Arg56. These results illustrate how remote protein-protein interactions translate into catalytic resilience by restoring damaged electrostatic preorganisation at the active site.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe
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