8 research outputs found

    Epidemiology and Management of South American Leaf Blight on Rubber in Brazil

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    The rubber tree (Hevea spp.) is one of the main forest crops in tropical regions due commercialization of natural rubber. Brazil currently imports most rubber that is consumed. According to the International Rubber Study Group, for an annual consumption of 350,000 tons in Brazil, 135,000 tons were produced, whereas 215,000 tons were imported. This failure of rubber cultivation in Brazil is primarily due to South American leaf blight (SALB), a disease caused by the fungus Microcyclus ulei (P. Henn. v. Arx.). The fungus is present in all Brazilian rubber-producing regions and attacks young leaflets, causing abscission and, ultimately, death of the tree. This disease occurs in almost all areas of rubber tree plantations in Central and South America. Strategies used to manage SALB are based on the use of fungicides in nurseries and young plantations and the use of resistant clones; on phenological aspects, taking into account the leaf shedding patterns of adult rubber trees, which in certain environments provide defense in addition to resistance; and on climatic factors that are favorable or unfavorable to epidemic development. The aim of this chapter was to describe all aspects related to the epidemiology and management of leaf blight in Brazil

    Efeito do tratamento químico na sanidade de sementes de espécies florestais

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    This study evaluated the effect of different fungicide and sodium hypochlorite treatments in reducing the incidence of fungi on seeds of native species of the Atlantic rainforest. The experiment was done using the completely randomized design in a 5x5 factorial with five levels of factor A (forest species) and five levels of factor B (chemical treatment and surface disinfection with sodium hypochlorite) with four replications. The fungal genera Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium were identified. The species ‘JacarandĂĄ-da-Bahia’ and ‘IpĂȘ-roxo’ had lower fungal incidence, 1.0% and 1.3%, respectively. Except for ‘Angico Vermelho’, the fungicide pencycurom and sodium hypochlorite were not significantly different from the control in the species evaluated. Seed treatment with fungicides ‘Captan’ and ‘Tiram’ yielded satisfactory results in reducing the incidence of fungal contamination in forest species seeds.  O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes tratamentos com fungicidas e hipoclorito de sĂłdio na redução da incidĂȘncia de fungos em sementes de espĂ©cies florestais nativas da Mata AtlĂąntica. O experimento foi conduzido empregando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 5x5, com cinco nĂ­veis do fator A (espĂ©cies florestais) e cinco nĂ­veis do fator B (tratamento quĂ­mico e desinfestação superficial com hipoclorito de sĂłdio), com quatro repetiçÔes. Foram identificados os gĂȘneros fĂșngicos Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus e Penicillium. As espĂ©cies de jacarandĂĄ-da-Bahia e ipĂȘ-roxo apresentaram menor incidĂȘncia fĂșngica com 1% e 1,3%, respectivamente. Exceto para a espĂ©cie de angico-vermelho, o fungicida Pencicurom e o hipoclorito de sĂłdio nĂŁo deferiram estatisticamente da testemunha nas espĂ©cies avaliadas. Os tratamentos de sementes com os fungicidas Captan e Tiram proporcionaram resultados satisfatĂłrios quanto Ă  redução da incidĂȘncia fĂșngica em sementes de espĂ©cies florestais

    Effect of chemical control on the sanity of forest species seeds

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    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes tratamentos com fungicidas e hipoclorito de sĂłdio na redução da incidĂȘncia de fungos em sementes de espĂ©cies florestais nativas da Mata AtlĂąntica. O experimento foi conduzido empregando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 5x5, com cinco nĂ­veis do fator A (espĂ©cies florestais) e cinco nĂ­veis do fator B (tratamento quĂ­mico e desinfestação superficial com hipoclorito de sĂłdio), com quatro repetiçÔes. Foram identificados os gĂȘneros fĂșngicos Fusarium , Alternaria , Aspergillus e Penicillium . As espĂ©cies de jacarandĂĄ-da-Bahia e ipĂȘ-roxo apresentaram menor incidĂȘncia fĂșngica com 1% e 1,3%, respectivamente. Exceto para a espĂ©cie de angico-vermelho, o fungicida Pencicurom e o hipoclorito de sĂłdio nĂŁo deferiram estatisticamente da testemunha nas espĂ©cies avaliadas. Os tratamentos de sementes com os fungicidas Captan e Tiram proporcionaram resultados satisfatĂłrios quanto Ă  redução da incidĂȘncia fĂșngica em sementes de espĂ©cies florestais.This study evaluated the effect of different fungicide and sodium hypochlorite treatments in reducing the incidence of fungi on seeds of native species of the Atlantic rainforest. The experiment was done using the completely randomized design in a 5x5 factorial with five levels of factor A (forest species) and five levels of factor B (chemical treatment and surface disinfection with sodium hypochlorite) with four replications. The fungal genera Fusarium , Alternaria , Aspergillus and Penicillium were identified. The species ‘JacarandĂĄ-da-Bahia’ and ‘IpĂȘ-roxo’ had lower fungal incidence, 1.0% and 1.3%, respectively. Except for ‘Angico Vermelho’, the fungicide pencycurom and sodium hypochlorite were not significantly different from the control in the species evaluated. Seed treatment with fungicides ‘Captan’ and ‘Tiram’ yielded satisfactory results in reducing the incidence of fungal contamination in forest species seeds

    AnĂĄlise do risco de ocorrĂȘncia da monilĂ­ase em cacaueiro no Brasil face Ă s mudanças climĂĄticas globais

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    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential risk of moniliasis occurrence and the impacts of climate change on this disease in the coming decades, should this pathogen be introduced in Brazil. To this end, climate favorability maps were devised for the occurrence of moniliasis, both for the present and future time. The future scenarios (A2 and B2) focused on the decades of 2020, 2050 and 2080. These scenarios were obtained from six global climate models (GCMs) made available by the third assessment report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Currently, there are large areas with favorable climate conditions for moniliasis in Brazil, especially in regions at high risk of introduction of that pathogen. Considering the global warming scenarios provided by the IPCC, the potential risk of moniliasis occurrence in Brazil will be reduced. This decrease is predicted for both future scenarios, but will occur more sharply in scenario A2. However, there will still be areas with favorable climate conditions for the development of the disease, particularly in Brazil's main producing regions. Moreover, pathogen and host alike may undergo alterations due to climate change, which will affect the extent of their impacts on this pathosystem
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