151 research outputs found

    Grain refinement of DC cast magnesium alloys with intensive melt shearing

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    A new direct chill (DC) casting process, melt conditioned DC (MC-DC) process, has been developed for the production of high quality billets/slabs of light alloys by application of intensive melt shearing through a rotor-stator high shear device during the DC casting process. The rotor-stator high shear device provides intensive melt shearing to disperse the naturally occurring oxide films, and other inclusions, while creating a microscopic flow pattern to homogenize the temperature and composition fields in the sump. In this paper, we report the grain refining effect of intensive melt shearing in the MC-DC casting processing. Experimental results on DC casting of Mg-alloys with and without intensive melt shearing have demonstrated that the MC-DC casting process can produce magnesium alloy billets with significantly refined microstructure. Such grain refinement in the MC-DC casting process can be attributed to enhanced heterogeneous nucleation by dispersed naturally occurring oxide particles, increased nuclei survival rate in uniform temperature and compositional fields in the sump, and potential contribution from dendrite arm fragmentation

    A Novel Approach to Molecular Recognition Surface of Magnetic Nanoparticles Based on Host–Guest Effect

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    A novel route has been developed to prepared β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The MNPs were first modified with monotosyl-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) silane and then tosyl units were displaced by amino-β-CD through the nucleophilic substitution reaction. The monotosyl-PEG silane was synthesized by modifying a PEG diol to form the corresponding monotosyl-PEG, followed by a reaction with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane (IPTS). The success of the synthesis of the monotosyl-PEG silane was confirmed with1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The analysis of FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the immobilization of β-CD onto MNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the β-CD functionalized MNPs were mostly present as individual nonclustered units in water. The number of β-CD molecules immobilized on each MNP was about 240 according to the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results. The as-prepared β-CD functionalized MNPs were used to detect dopamine with the assistance of a magnet

    Observation of a ppb mass threshoud enhancement in \psi^\prime\to\pi^+\pi^-J/\psi(J/\psi\to\gamma p\bar{p}) decay

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    The decay channel ψπ+πJ/ψ(J/ψγppˉ)\psi^\prime\to\pi^+\pi^-J/\psi(J/\psi\to\gamma p\bar{p}) is studied using a sample of 1.06×1081.06\times 10^8 ψ\psi^\prime events collected by the BESIII experiment at BEPCII. A strong enhancement at threshold is observed in the ppˉp\bar{p} invariant mass spectrum. The enhancement can be fit with an SS-wave Breit-Wigner resonance function with a resulting peak mass of M=186113+6(stat)26+7(syst)MeV/c2M=1861^{+6}_{-13} {\rm (stat)}^{+7}_{-26} {\rm (syst)} {\rm MeV/}c^2 and a narrow width that is Γ<38MeV/c2\Gamma<38 {\rm MeV/}c^2 at the 90% confidence level. These results are consistent with published BESII results. These mass and width values do not match with those of any known meson resonance.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Chinese Physics

    Sodium Coupled Bicarbonate Influx Regulates Intracellular and Apical pH in Cultured Rat Caput Epididymal Epithelium

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    The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis.Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F) and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution, the intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from NH(4)Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO(3)(-) buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO(3)(-) buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), the inhibitor of HCO(3)(-) transporter or by removal of extracellular Na(+). The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH.The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium

    The Lyman Alpha Forest in the Spectra of QSOs

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    Observations of redshifted Lyman alpha forest absorption in the spectra of quasistellar objects (QSOs) provide a highly sensitive probe of the distribution of gaseous matter in the universe. Over the past two decades optical spectroscopy with large ground-based telescopes, and more recently ultraviolet spectroscopy from space have yielded a wealth of information on what appears to be a gaseous, photoionized intergalactic medium, partly enriched by the products of stellar nucleosynthesis, residing in coherent structures over many hundreds of kiloparsecs. Recent progress with cosmological hydro-simulations based on hierarchical structure formation models has led to important insights into the physical structures giving rise to the forest. If these ideas are correct, a truely inter- and proto-galactic medium [at high redshift (z ~ 3), the main repository of baryons] collapses under the influence of dark matter gravity into flattened or filamentary structures, which are seen in absorption against background QSOs. With decreasing redshift, galaxies forming in the denser regions, may contribute an increasing part of the Lyman alpha absorption cross-section. Comparisons between large data samples from the new generation of telescopes and artificial Lyman alpha forest spectra from cosmological simulations promise to become a useful cosmological tool.Comment: latex plus three postscript figures, uses psfig,sty; Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 1998, vol. 36 (in press

    Transplantation of Specific Human Astrocytes Promotes Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

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    Repairing trauma to the central nervous system by replacement of glial support cells is an increasingly attractive therapeutic strategy. We have focused on the less-studied replacement of astrocytes, the major support cell in the central nervous system, by generating astrocytes from embryonic human glial precursor cells using two different astrocyte differentiation inducing factors. The resulting astrocytes differed in expression of multiple proteins thought to either promote or inhibit central nervous system homeostasis and regeneration. When transplanted into acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord, astrocytes generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein promoted significant recovery of volitional foot placement, axonal growth and notably robust increases in neuronal survival in multiple spinal cord laminae. In marked contrast, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by exposure to ciliary neurotrophic factor both failed to promote significant behavioral recovery or similarly robust neuronal survival and support of axon growth at sites of injury. Our studies thus demonstrate functional differences between human astrocyte populations and suggest that pre-differentiation of precursor cells into a specific astrocyte subtype is required to optimize astrocyte replacement therapies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show functional differences in ability to promote repair of the injured adult central nervous system between two distinct subtypes of human astrocytes derived from a common fetal glial precursor population. These findings are consistent with our previous studies of transplanting specific subtypes of rodent glial precursor derived astrocytes into sites of spinal cord injury, and indicate a remarkable conservation from rat to human of functional differences between astrocyte subtypes. In addition, our studies provide a specific population of human astrocytes that appears to be particularly suitable for further development towards clinical application in treating the traumatically injured or diseased human central nervous system

    Branching fraction measurements of χc0 and χc2 to π0π0 and ηη

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    Using a sample of 1.06×108 ψ ′ decays collected by the BESIII detector, χc0 and χc2 decays into π0π0 and ηη are studied. The branching fraction results are Br(χc0→π 0π0)=(3.23±0.03±0.23±0.14)×10 -3, Br(χc2→π0π0)=(8.8±0.2±0.6±0.4)×10 -4, Br(χc0→ηη)=(3.44±0.10±0. 24±0.2)×10 -3, and Br(χc2→ηη)=(6. 5±0.4±0.5±0.3)×10 -4, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic due to this measurement, and systematic due to the branching fractions of ψ ′→ γχcJ. The results provide information on the decay mechanism of χc states into pseudoscalars. © 2010 The American Physical Society.published_or_final_versio

    Measurement of the matrix element for the decay η′→ηπ +π -

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    The Dalitz plot of η⊃′→ηπ⊃+π⊃- decay is studied using (225.2±2.8)×106 J/ψ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e⊃+e⊃- collider. With the largest sample of η⊃′ decays to date, the parameters of the Dalitz plot are determined in a generalized and a linear representation. Also, the branching fraction of J/ψ→γη⊃′ is determined to be (4.84±0.03±0.24)×10⊃-3, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. © 2011 American Physical Society.published_or_final_versio

    First observation of the decays χcJ→π0π0π0π0

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    We present a study of the P-wave spin-triplet charmonium χ cJ decays (J=0, 1, 2) into π0π0π0π0. The analysis is based on 106×106 ψ⊃′ decays recorded with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII electron positron collider. The decay into the π0π0π0π0 hadronic final state is observed for the first time. We measure the branching fractions B(χ c0→π0π0π0π0)=(3.34±0. 06±0.44)×10⊃-3, B(χ c1→π0π0π0π0) =(0.57±0.03±0.08)×10⊃-3, and B(χ c2→π0π0π0π0)=(1.21±0.05±0.16) ×10⊃-3, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematical, respectively. © 2011 American Physical Society.published_or_final_versio