488 research outputs found

    Circumstellar rings, flat and flaring discs

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    Emission lines formed in the circumstellar envelopes of several type of stars can be modeled using first principles of line formation. We present simple ways of calculating line emission profiles formed in circumstellar envelopes having different geometrical configurations. The fit of the observed line profiles with the calculated ones may give first order estimates of the physical parameters characterizing the line formation regions: opacity, size, particle density distribution, velocity fields, excitation temperature.Comment: 3 pages ; to appear in the proceedings of the Sapporo meeting on active OB stars ; ASP Conference Series ; eds: S. Stefl, S. Owocki and A. Okazak

    Differential rotation in early type stars

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    Using 2D models of rotating stars, the interferometric measurements of alpha Eri and its fundamental parameters corrected for gravitational darkening effects we infer that the star might have a core rotating 2.7 times faster than the surface. We explore the consequences on spectral lines produced by surface differential rotation combined with the effects due to a kind of internal differential rotation with rotational energies higher than allowed for rigid rotation which induce geometrical deformations that do not distinguish strongly from those carried by the rigid rotation.Comment: 3 pages ; to appear in the proceedings of the Sapporo meeting on active OB stars ; ASP Conference Series ; eds: S. Stefl, S. Owocki and A. Okazak

    Open clusters: III. Fundamental parameters of B stars in NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383 and NGC 6530. B type stars with circumstellar envelopes

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    Context. Stellar physical properties of star clusters are poorly known. Aims. Our goals are to perform a spectrophotometric study of the B star population in open clusters to derive accurate stellar parameters, search for the presence of circumstellar envelopes, and discuss the characteristics of these stars. Methods. The BCD spectrophotometric system is a powerful tool to obtain fundamental parameters and infer the main properties of open clusters: distance modulus, color excess, and age. We inspected the Balmer discontinuity to seek circumstellar disks and identify Be-star candidates. High resolution spectra in the Hα\alpha region are used to confirm the Be nature. Results. We provide Teff , log g, Mv , Mbol and spectral types for a sample of 68 stars in the field of the open clusters NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383, and NGC 6530, as well as the cluster distances, ages and reddening. Then, based on a sample of 230 B stars in the direction of the 11 open clusters studied along this series of three papers, we report 6 new Be stars, 4 blue straggler candidates, and 15 B-type stars (called Bdd) with a double Balmer discontinuity. We also find that the majority of the Be stars are dwarfs and present a maximum at the spectral type B2-B4 in young and intermediate-age open clusters. Another maximum of Be stars is observed at the spectral type B6-B8 in open clusters older than 40 Myr, where the population of Bdd stars also becomes relevant. Conclusions. Our results support previous statements that the Be phenomenon is present along the whole main sequence band and occurs in very different evolutionary states. We find clear evidence of an increase of stars with circumstellar envelopes with cluster age. The Be phenomenon reaches its maximum in clusters of intermediate age and the number of B stars with circumstellar envelopes (Be+Bdd stars) is also high for the older clusters

    Evolution and appearance of Be stars in SMC clusters

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    Star clusters are privileged laboratories for studying the evolution of massive stars (OB stars). One particularly interesting question concerns the phases, during which the classical Be stars occur, which unlike HAe/Be stars, are not pre-main sequence objects, nor supergiants. Rather, they are extremely rapidly rotating B-type stars with a circumstellar decretion disk formed by episodic ejections of matter from the central star. To study the impact of mass, metallicity, and age on the Be phase, we observed SMC open clusters with two different techniques: 1) with the ESO-WFI in its slitless mode, which allowed us to find the brighter Be and other emission-line stars in 84 SMC open clusters 2) with the VLT-FLAMES multi-fiber spectrograph in order to determine accurately the evolutionary phases of Be stars in the Be-star rich SMC open cluster NGC 330. Based on a comparison to the Milky Way, a model of Be stellar evolution / appearance as a function of metallicity and mass / spectral type is developed, involving the fractional critical rotation rate as a key parameter.Comment: Proceedings of the IAUS266 of the GA200

    Metallicity vs. Be phenomenon relation in the solar neighborhood

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    Fast rotation seems to be the mayor factor to trigger the Be phenomenon. Surface fast rotation can be favored by initial formation conditions, such as abundance of metals. We have observed 118 Be stars up to the apparent magnitudes V=9 mag. Models of fast rotating atmospheres and evolutionary tracks were used to interpret the stellar spectra and to determine the stellar fundamental parameters. Since the studied stars are formed in regions that are separated enough to imply some non negligible gradient of galactic metallicity, we study the effects of possible incidence of this gradient on the nature as rotators of the studied stars.Comment: 3 pages ; to appear in the proceedings of the Sapporo meeting on active OB stars ; ASP Conference Series ; eds: S. Stefl, S. Owocki and A. Okazak

    Rotation in the ZAMS: Be and Bn stars

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    We show that Be stars belong to a high velocity tail of a single B-type star rotational velocity distribution in the MS. This implies that: 1) the number fraction N(Be)/N(Be+B) is independent of the mass; 2) Bn stars having ZAMS rotational velocities higher than a given limit might become Be stars.Comment: 3 pages ; to appear in the proceedings of the Sapporo meeting on active OB stars ; ASP Conference Series ; eds: S. Stefl, S. Owocki and A. Okazak

    Rotational velocities of A-type stars II. Measurement of vsini in the northern hemisphere

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    This work is the second part of the set of measurements of vsini for A-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (2002). Spectra of 249 B8 to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles in the range 4200--4600 A are used to derive vsini from the frequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sample indicates that measurement error mainly depends on vsini and this relative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% on average. The systematic shift with respect to standard values from Slettebak et al. (1975), previously found in the first paper, is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree with our findings: vsini values from Slettebak et al. are underestimated and the relation between both scales follows a linear law: vsini(new) = 1.03 vsini(old) + 7.7. Finally, these data are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al. 2002), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell (1995). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars with homogenized rotational velocities.Comment: 16 pages, includes 13 figures, accepted in A&

    On the evolutionary status of Be stars. I. Field Be stars near the Sun

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    A sample of 97 galactic field Be stars were studied by taking into account the effects induced by the fast rotation on their fundamental parameters. All program stars were observed in the BCD spectrophotometric system in order to minimize the perturbations produced by the circumstellar environment on the spectral photospheric signatures. This is one of the first attempts at determining stellar masses and ages by simultaneously using model atmospheres and evolutionary tracks, both calculated for rotating objects. The stellar ages (τ\tau) normalized to the respective inferred time that each rotating star can spend in the main sequence phase (τ_MS\tau\_{\rm MS}) reveal a mass-dependent trend. This trend shows that: a) there are Be stars spread over the whole interval 0 \la \tau/\tau\_{\rm MS} \la 1 of the main sequence evolutionary phase; b) the distribution of points in the (τ/τ_MS,M/M_⊙\tau/\tau\_{\rm MS},M/M\_{\odot}) diagram indicates that in massive stars (M \ga 12M\_{\odot}) the Be phenomenon is present at smaller τ/τ_MS\tau/\tau\_{\rm MS} age ratios than for less massive stars (M \la 12M\_{\odot}). This distribution can be due to: ii) higher mass-loss rates in massive objets, which can act to reduce the surface fast rotation; iiii) circulation time scales to transport angular momentum from the core to the surface, which are longer the lower the stellar mass.Comment: 18 pages, 6 figures, A&A, in pres

    Physical parameters of IPHAS-selected classical Be stars. (I. Determination procedure and evaluation of the results.)

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    Reproduced with permission from Astronomy & Astrophysics, © 2016 ESOWe present a semi-automatic procedure to obtain fundamental physical parameters and distances of classical Be (CBe) stars, based on the Barbier-Chalonge-Divan (BCD) spectrophotometric system. Our aim is to apply this procedure to a large sample of CBe stars detected by the IPHAS photometric survey, to determine their fundamental physical parameters and to explore their suitability as galactic structure tracers. In this paper we describe the methodology used and the validation of the procedure by comparing our results with those obtained from different independent astrophysical techniques for subsamples of stars in common with other studies. We also present a test case study of the galactic structure in the direction of the Perseus Galactic Arm, in order to compare our results with others recently obtained with different techniques and the same sample of stars. We did not find any significant clustering of stars at the expected positions of the Perseus and Outer Galactic Arms, in agreement with previous studies in the same area that we used for verification.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    Fundamental parameters of Be stars located in the seismology fields of COROT

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    In preparation for the COROT space mission, we determined the fundamental parameters (spectral type, temperature, gravity, vsini) of the Be stars observable by COROT in its seismology fields (64 Be stars). We applied a careful and detailed modeling of the stellar spectra, taking into account the veiling caused by the envelope, as well as the gravitational darkening and stellar flattening due to rapid rotation. Evolutionary tracks for fast rotators were used to derive stellar masses and ages. The derived parameters will be used to select Be stars as secondary targets (i.e. observed for 5 consecutive months) and short-run targets of the COROT mission. Furthermore, we note that the main part of our stellar sample is falling in the second half of the main sequence life time, and that in most cases the luminosity class of Be stars is inaccurate in characterizing their evolutionary status.Comment: 25 pages, 9 figures, Accepted for publication in A&
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