232 research outputs found

    Contracting for IT Outsourcing with Asymmetric Information

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    IT outsourcing allows a business to reduce the cost of IT service delivery and improve the quality of IT service by taking advantage of the service provider’s economics of scale and technical expertise. However, the successful outsourcing of IT service is hampered by lack of guidance on how to design incentive contracts to encourage performance of the service provider, especially in the presence of information asymmetry and incentive divergence. In this article, we identify and characterize two asymmetric information factors: asymmetric effort information and asymmetric capability information. Depending on whether the service provider’s effort information and capability information is symmetric or not, we consider three information scenarios and characterize optimal incentive contracts for each scenario. We also introduce the concept of information value to quantify the adverse effects of the two asymmetric information factors. The results provide theoretical support for designing incentive contracts that mitigate the adverse effects of asymmetric information, and recommend effective guidance for activities so as to reduce the degree of information asymmetry

    Rapid Invasion of Spartina Alterniflora in the Coastal Zone of Mainland China: Spatiotemporal Patterns and Human Prevention

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    Given the extensive spread and ecological consequences of exotic Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora) over the coast of mainland China, monitoring its spatiotemporal invasion patterns is important for the sake of coastal ecosystem management and ecological security. In this study, Landsat series images from 1990 to 2015 were used to establish multi-temporal datasets for documenting the temporal dynamics of S. alterniflora invasion. Our observations revealed that S. alterniflora had a continuous expansion with the area increasing by 50,204 ha during the considered 25 years. The largest expansion was identified in Jiangsu Province during the period of 1990-2000, and in Zhejiang Province during the periods 2000-2010 and 2010-2015. Three noticeable hotspots for S. alterniflora invasion were Yancheng of Jiangsu, Chongming of Shanghai, and Ningbo of Zhejiang, and each had a net area increase larger than 5000 ha. Moreover, an obvious shrinkage of S. alterniflora was identified in three coastal cities including the city of Cangzhou of Hebei, Dongguan, and Jiangmen of Guangdong. S. alterniflora invaded mostly into mudflats (>93%) and shrank primarily due to aquaculture (55.5%). This study sheds light on the historical spatial patterns in S. alterniflora distribution and thus is helpful for understanding its invasion mechanism and invasive species management
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