7,960 research outputs found

    Fusion of Urban TanDEM-X raw DEMs using variational models

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    Recently, a new global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with pixel spacing of 0.4 arcseconds and relative height accuracy finer than 2m for flat areas (slopes 20%) was created through the TanDEM-X mission. One important step of the chain of global DEM generation is to mosaic and fuse multiple raw DEM tiles to reach the target height accuracy. Currently, Weighted Averaging (WA) is applied as a fast and simple method for TanDEM-X raw DEM fusion in which the weights are computed from height error maps delivered from the Interferometric TanDEM-X Processor (ITP). However, evaluations show that WA is not the perfect DEM fusion method for urban areas especially in confrontation with edges such as building outlines. The main focus of this paper is to investigate more advanced variational approaches such as TV-L1 and Huber models. Furthermore, we also assess the performance of variational models for fusing raw DEMs produced from data takes with different baseline configurations and height of ambiguities. The results illustrate the high efficiency of variational models for TanDEM-X raw DEM fusion in comparison to WA. Using variational models could improve the DEM quality by up to 2m particularly in inner-city subsets.Comment: This is the pre-acceptance version, to read the final version, please go to IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing on IEEE Xplor

    Non-Local Compressive Sensing Based SAR Tomography

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    Tomographic SAR (TomoSAR) inversion of urban areas is an inherently sparse reconstruction problem and, hence, can be solved using compressive sensing (CS) algorithms. This paper proposes solutions for two notorious problems in this field: 1) TomoSAR requires a high number of data sets, which makes the technique expensive. However, it can be shown that the number of acquisitions and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be traded off against each other, because it is asymptotically only the product of the number of acquisitions and SNR that determines the reconstruction quality. We propose to increase SNR by integrating non-local estimation into the inversion and show that a reasonable reconstruction of buildings from only seven interferograms is feasible. 2) CS-based inversion is computationally expensive and therefore barely suitable for large-scale applications. We introduce a new fast and accurate algorithm for solving the non-local L1-L2-minimization problem, central to CS-based reconstruction algorithms. The applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated using simulated data and TerraSAR-X high-resolution spotlight images over an area in Munich, Germany.Comment: 10 page

    Towards Automatic SAR-Optical Stereogrammetry over Urban Areas using Very High Resolution Imagery

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    In this paper we discuss the potential and challenges regarding SAR-optical stereogrammetry for urban areas, using very-high-resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery. Since we do this mainly from a geometrical point of view, we first analyze the height reconstruction accuracy to be expected for different stereogrammetric configurations. Then, we propose a strategy for simultaneous tie point matching and 3D reconstruction, which exploits an epipolar-like search window constraint. To drive the matching and ensure some robustness, we combine different established handcrafted similarity measures. For the experiments, we use real test data acquired by the Worldview-2, TerraSAR-X and MEMPHIS sensors. Our results show that SAR-optical stereogrammetry using VHR imagery is generally feasible with 3D positioning accuracies in the meter-domain, although the matching of these strongly hetereogeneous multi-sensor data remains very challenging. Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), optical images, remote sensing, data fusion, stereogrammetr

    Fusion of Heterogeneous Earth Observation Data for the Classification of Local Climate Zones

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    This paper proposes a novel framework for fusing multi-temporal, multispectral satellite images and OpenStreetMap (OSM) data for the classification of local climate zones (LCZs). Feature stacking is the most commonly-used method of data fusion but does not consider the heterogeneity of multimodal optical images and OSM data, which becomes its main drawback. The proposed framework processes two data sources separately and then combines them at the model level through two fusion models (the landuse fusion model and building fusion model), which aim to fuse optical images with landuse and buildings layers of OSM data, respectively. In addition, a new approach to detecting building incompleteness of OSM data is proposed. The proposed framework was trained and tested using data from the 2017 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest, and further validated on one additional test set containing test samples which are manually labeled in Munich and New York. Experimental results have indicated that compared to the feature stacking-based baseline framework the proposed framework is effective in fusing optical images with OSM data for the classification of LCZs with high generalization capability on a large scale. The classification accuracy of the proposed framework outperforms the baseline framework by more than 6% and 2%, while testing on the test set of 2017 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest and the additional test set, respectively. In addition, the proposed framework is less sensitive to spectral diversities of optical satellite images and thus achieves more stable classification performance than state-of-the art frameworks.Comment: accepted by TGR

    Building Footprint Generation Using Improved Generative Adversarial Networks

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    Building footprint information is an essential ingredient for 3-D reconstruction of urban models. The automatic generation of building footprints from satellite images presents a considerable challenge due to the complexity of building shapes. In this work, we have proposed improved generative adversarial networks (GANs) for the automatic generation of building footprints from satellite images. We used a conditional GAN with a cost function derived from the Wasserstein distance and added a gradient penalty term. The achieved results indicated that the proposed method can significantly improve the quality of building footprint generation compared to conditional generative adversarial networks, the U-Net, and other networks. In addition, our method nearly removes all hyperparameters tuning.Comment: 5 page

    Learning Spectral-Spatial-Temporal Features via a Recurrent Convolutional Neural Network for Change Detection in Multispectral Imagery

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    Change detection is one of the central problems in earth observation and was extensively investigated over recent decades. In this paper, we propose a novel recurrent convolutional neural network (ReCNN) architecture, which is trained to learn a joint spectral-spatial-temporal feature representation in a unified framework for change detection in multispectral images. To this end, we bring together a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a recurrent neural network (RNN) into one end-to-end network. The former is able to generate rich spectral-spatial feature representations, while the latter effectively analyzes temporal dependency in bi-temporal images. In comparison with previous approaches to change detection, the proposed network architecture possesses three distinctive properties: 1) It is end-to-end trainable, in contrast to most existing methods whose components are separately trained or computed; 2) it naturally harnesses spatial information that has been proven to be beneficial to change detection task; 3) it is capable of adaptively learning the temporal dependency between multitemporal images, unlike most of algorithms that use fairly simple operation like image differencing or stacking. As far as we know, this is the first time that a recurrent convolutional network architecture has been proposed for multitemporal remote sensing image analysis. The proposed network is validated on real multispectral data sets. Both visual and quantitative analysis of experimental results demonstrates competitive performance in the proposed mode

    A Framework for SAR-Optical Stereogrammetry over Urban Areas

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    Currently, numerous remote sensing satellites provide a huge volume of diverse earth observation data. As these data show different features regarding resolution, accuracy, coverage, and spectral imaging ability, fusion techniques are required to integrate the different properties of each sensor and produce useful information. For example, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data can be fused with optical imagery to produce 3D information using stereogrammetric methods. The main focus of this study is to investigate the possibility of applying a stereogrammetry pipeline to very-high-resolution (VHR) SAR-optical image pairs. For this purpose, the applicability of semi-global matching is investigated in this unconventional multi-sensor setting. To support the image matching by reducing the search space and accelerating the identification of correct, reliable matches, the possibility of establishing an epipolarity constraint for VHR SAR-optical image pairs is investigated as well. In addition, it is shown that the absolute geolocation accuracy of VHR optical imagery with respect to VHR SAR imagery such as provided by TerraSAR-X can be improved by a multi-sensor block adjustment formulation based on rational polynomial coefficients. Finally, the feasibility of generating point clouds with a median accuracy of about 2m is demonstrated and confirms the potential of 3D reconstruction from SAR-optical image pairs over urban areas.Comment: This is the pre-acceptance version, to read the final version, please go to ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing on ScienceDirec

    A fast and accurate basis pursuit denoising algorithm with application to super-resolving tomographic SAR

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    L1L_1 regularization is used for finding sparse solutions to an underdetermined linear system. As sparse signals are widely expected in remote sensing, this type of regularization scheme and its extensions have been widely employed in many remote sensing problems, such as image fusion, target detection, image super-resolution, and others and have led to promising results. However, solving such sparse reconstruction problems is computationally expensive and has limitations in its practical use. In this paper, we proposed a novel efficient algorithm for solving the complex-valued L1L_1 regularized least squares problem. Taking the high-dimensional tomographic synthetic aperture radar (TomoSAR) as a practical example, we carried out extensive experiments, both with simulation data and real data, to demonstrate that the proposed approach can retain the accuracy of second order methods while dramatically speeding up the processing by one or two orders. Although we have chosen TomoSAR as the example, the proposed method can be generally applied to any spectral estimation problems.Comment: 11 pages, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensin
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