41 research outputs found

    Cryogenic electrolytes and catalysts for zinc air batteries

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    The challenges of enabling zinc air batteries to operate at ultralow temperatures are twofold. The Prerequisite is preventing the electrolyte from freezing while maintaining high ionic conductivity. Secondly, the catalyst has to work efficiently at low temperatures. This highlight presents the latest development to resolve the challenges by tuning the structures of the electrolyte and catalyst, offering a new paradigm to widen the working temperature range of zinc air batteries

    Nano energy for miniaturized systems

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    Skin mountable electronic devices are in a high-speed development at the crossroads of materials science, electronics, and computer science. Sophisticated functions, such as sensing, actuating, and computing, are integrated into a soft electronic device that can be firmly mounted to any place of human body. These advanced electronic devices are capable of yielding abilities for us whenever they are needed and even expanding our abilities beyond their natural limitations. Despite the great promise of skin mounted electronic devices, they still lack satisfactory power supplies that are safe and continuous. This Perspective discusses the prospects of the development of energy storage devices for the next generation skin mountable electronic devices based on their unique requirements on flexibility and miniaturized size

    Covalent Organic Frameworks for Efficient Energy Electrocatalysis: Rational Design and Progress

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    An efficient catalyst with a precisely designed and predictable structure is highly desired to optimize its performance and understand the mechanism beyond the catalytic activity. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), as an emerging class of framework materials linked by strong covalent bonds, simultaneously allow precise structure design with predictable synthesis and show advantages of large surface areas, tunable pore sizes, and unique molecular architectures. Although the research on COF‐based electrocatalysts is at an early age, significant progress has been made. Herein, the recent significant progress in the design and synthesis of COFs as highly efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is summarized. Design principles for COFs as efficient electrocatalysts are discussed by considering essential factors for catalyzing the OER, ORR, and HER processes at the molecular level. Herein, a summary on the in‐depth understanding of the catalytic mechanism and kinetics limitations of COFs provides a general instruction for further exploring their vast potential for designing highly efficient electrocatalysts

    Locally Decodable/Correctable Codes for Insertions and Deletions

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    Recent efforts in coding theory have focused on building codes for insertions and deletions, called insdel codes, with optimal trade-offs between their redundancy and their error-correction capabilities, as well as efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. In many applications, polynomial running time may still be prohibitively expensive, which has motivated the study of codes with super-efficient decoding algorithms. These have led to the well-studied notions of Locally Decodable Codes (LDCs) and Locally Correctable Codes (LCCs). Inspired by these notions, Ostrovsky and Paskin-Cherniavsky (Information Theoretic Security, 2015) generalized Hamming LDCs to insertions and deletions. To the best of our knowledge, these are the only known results that study the analogues of Hamming LDCs in channels performing insertions and deletions. Here we continue the study of insdel codes that admit local algorithms. Specifically, we reprove the results of Ostrovsky and Paskin-Cherniavsky for insdel LDCs using a different set of techniques. We also observe that the techniques extend to constructions of LCCs. Specifically, we obtain insdel LDCs and LCCs from their Hamming LDCs and LCCs analogues, respectively. The rate and error-correction capability blow up only by a constant factor, while the query complexity blows up by a poly log factor in the block length. Since insdel locally decodable/correctble codes are scarcely studied in the literature, we believe our results and techniques may lead to further research. In particular, we conjecture that constant-query insdel LDCs/LCCs do not exist

    Fixed-Parameter Algorithms for Longest Heapable Subsequence and Maximum Binary Tree

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    A heapable sequence is a sequence of numbers that can be arranged in a min-heap data structure. Finding a longest heapable subsequence of a given sequence was proposed by Byers, Heeringa, Mitzenmacher, and Zervas (ANALCO 2011) as a generalization of the well-studied longest increasing subsequence problem and its complexity still remains open. An equivalent formulation of the longest heapable subsequence problem is that of finding a maximum-sized binary tree in a given permutation directed acyclic graph (permutation DAG). In this work, we study parameterized algorithms for both longest heapable subsequence and maximum-sized binary tree. We introduce alphabet size as a new parameter in the study of computational problems in permutation DAGs and show that this parameter with respect to a fixed topological ordering admits a complete characterization and a polynomial time algorithm. We believe that this parameter is likely to be useful in the context of optimization problems defined over permutation DAGs

    The Maximum Binary Tree Problem

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    We introduce and investigate the approximability of the maximum binary tree problem (MBT) in directed and undirected graphs. The goal in MBT is to find a maximum-sized binary tree in a given graph. MBT is a natural variant of the well-studied longest path problem, since both can be viewed as finding a maximum-sized tree of bounded degree in a given graph. The connection to longest path motivates the study of MBT in directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), since the longest path problem is solvable efficiently in DAGs. In contrast, we show that MBT in DAGs is in fact hard: it has no efficient exp(-O(log n/ log log n))-approximation algorithm under the exponential time hypothesis, where n is the number of vertices in the input graph. In undirected graphs, we show that MBT has no efficient exp(-O(log^0.63 n))-approximation under the exponential time hypothesis. Our inapproximability results rely on self-improving reductions and structural properties of binary trees. We also show constant-factor inapproximability assuming P ? NP. In addition to inapproximability results, we present algorithmic results along two different flavors: (1) We design a randomized algorithm to verify if a given directed graph on n vertices contains a binary tree of size k in 2^k poly(n) time. (2) Motivated by the longest heapable subsequence problem, introduced by Byers, Heeringa, Mitzenmacher, and Zervas, ANALCO 2011, which is equivalent to MBT in permutation DAGs, we design efficient algorithms for MBT in bipartite permutation graphs

    On Relaxed Locally Decodable Codes for Hamming and Insertion-Deletion Errors

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    Locally Decodable Codes (LDCs) are error-correcting codes C:ΣnΣmC:\Sigma^n\rightarrow \Sigma^m with super-fast decoding algorithms. They are important mathematical objects in many areas of theoretical computer science, yet the best constructions so far have codeword length mm that is super-polynomial in nn, for codes with constant query complexity and constant alphabet size. In a very surprising result, Ben-Sasson et al. showed how to construct a relaxed version of LDCs (RLDCs) with constant query complexity and almost linear codeword length over the binary alphabet, and used them to obtain significantly-improved constructions of Probabilistically Checkable Proofs. In this work, we study RLDCs in the standard Hamming-error setting, and introduce their variants in the insertion and deletion (Insdel) error setting. Insdel LDCs were first studied by Ostrovsky and Paskin-Cherniavsky, and are further motivated by recent advances in DNA random access bio-technologies, in which the goal is to retrieve individual files from a DNA storage database. Our first result is an exponential lower bound on the length of Hamming RLDCs making 2 queries, over the binary alphabet. This answers a question explicitly raised by Gur and Lachish. Our result exhibits a "phase-transition"-type behavior on the codeword length for constant-query Hamming RLDCs. We further define two variants of RLDCs in the Insdel-error setting, a weak and a strong version. On the one hand, we construct weak Insdel RLDCs with with parameters matching those of the Hamming variants. On the other hand, we prove exponential lower bounds for strong Insdel RLDCs. These results demonstrate that, while these variants are equivalent in the Hamming setting, they are significantly different in the insdel setting. Our results also prove a strict separation between Hamming RLDCs and Insdel RLDCs

    Advanced architecture designs towards high-performance 3D microbatteries

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    Rechargeable microbatteries are important power supplies for microelectronic devices. Two essential targets for rechargeable microbatteries are high output energy and minimal footprint areas. In addition to the development of new high-performance electrode materials, the device configurations of microbatteries also play an important role in enhancing the output energy and miniaturizing the footprint area. To make a clear vision on the design principle of rechargeable microbatteries, we firstly summarize the typical configurations of microbatteries. The advantages of different configurations are thoroughly discussed from the aspects of fabrication technologies and material engineering. Towards the high energy output at a minimal footprint area, a revolutionary design for microbatteries is of great importance. In this perspective, we review the progress of fabricating microbatteries based on the rolled-up nanotechnology, a derivative origami technology. Finally, we discussed the challenges and perspectives in the device design and materials optimization
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