12 research outputs found

    On the Matrix Inversion Approximation Based on Neumann Series in Massive MIMO Systems

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    Zero-Forcing (ZF) has been considered as one of the potential practical precoding and detection method for massive MIMO systems. One of the most important advantages of massive MIMO is the capability of supporting a large number of users in the same time-frequency resource, which requires much larger dimensions of matrix inversion for ZF than conventional multi-user MIMO systems. In this case, Neumann Series (NS) has been considered for the Matrix Inversion Approximation (MIA), because of its suitability for massive MIMO systems and its advantages in hardware implementation. The performance-complexity trade-off and the hardware implementation of NS-based MIA in massive MIMO systems have been discussed. In this paper, we analyze the effects of the ratio of the number of massive MIMO antennas to the number of users on the performance of NS-based MIA. In addition, we derive the approximation error estimation formulas for different practical numbers of terms of NS-based MIA. These results could offer useful guidelines for practical massive MIMO systems.Comment: accepted to conference; Proc. IEEE ICC 201

    Small Cell In-Band Wireless Backhaul in Massive MIMO Systems: A Cooperation of Next-Generation Techniques

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    Co-Evolution of Emerging Multi-Cities: Rates, Patterns and Driving Policies Revealed by Continuous Change Detection and Classification of Landsat Data

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    The co-evolution of multi-cities has emerged as the primary form of urbanization in China in recent years. However, the processes, patterns, and coordination are not well characterized and understood, which hinders the understanding of the driving forces, consequences, and management of polycentric urban development. We used the Continuous Change Detection and Classification (CCDC) algorithm to integrate all available Landsat 5, 7, and 8 images and map annual land use and land cover (LULC) from 2001 to 2017 in the Chang–Zhu–Tan urban agglomeration (CZTUA), a typical urban agglomeration in China. Results showed that the impervious surface in the study area expanded by 371 km2 with an annual growth rate of 2.25%, primarily at the cost of cropland (169 km2) and forest (206 km2) during the study period. Urban growth has evolved from infilling being the dominant type in the earlier period to mainly edge-expansion and leapfrogging in the core cities, and from no dominant type to mainly leapfrogging in the satellite cities. The unfolding of the “cool center and hot edge” urban growth pattern in CZTUA, characterized by higher expansion rates in the peripheral than in the core cities, may signify a new form of the co-evolution of multi-cities in the process of urbanization. Detailed urban management and planning policies in CZTUA were analyzed. The co-evolution of multi-cities principles need to be studied in more extensive regions, which could help policymakers to promote sustainable and livable development in the future