44 research outputs found

    Additional file 1: Table S1. of A powerful score-based statistical test for group difference in weighted biological networks

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    The location and SNP number for five susceptibility genes belonging to the network associated with leprosy. Table S2. The location and probe sets number for genes belonging to the subnetwork from PI3K-AKT signaling pathway and Notch signaling pathway. Table S3. Type I error rates of four methods (40 vertices and 54 edges in the network). Table S4. Type I error rates of four methods given the deviation from the normal distribution. Figure S1. A network including 40 vertices and 54 edges. Figure S2. The statistical power of the four methods under three scenarios. (a) only vertices change, (b) only edges change, (c) both vertices and edges change. (PDF 140 kb

    From Interaction to Co-Association —A Fisher <i>r</i>-To-<i>z</i> Transformation-Based Simple Statistic for Real World Genome-Wide Association Study

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    <div><p>Currently, the genetic variants identified by genome wide association study (GWAS) generally only account for a small proportion of the total heritability for complex disease. One crucial reason is the underutilization of gene-gene joint effects commonly encountered in GWAS, which includes their main effects and co-association. However, gene-gene co-association is often customarily put into the framework of gene-gene interaction vaguely. From the causal graph perspective, we elucidate in detail the concept and rationality of gene-gene co-association as well as its relationship with traditional gene-gene interaction, and propose two Fisher <i>r-to-z</i> transformation-based simple statistics to detect it. Three series of simulations further highlight that gene-gene co-association refers to the extent to which the joint effects of two genes differs from the main effects, not only due to the traditional interaction under the nearly independent condition but the correlation between two genes. The proposed statistics are more powerful than logistic regression under various situations, cannot be affected by linkage disequilibrium and can have acceptable false positive rate as long as strictly following the reasonable GWAS data analysis roadmap. Furthermore, an application to gene pathway analysis associated with leprosy confirms in practice that our proposed gene-gene co-association concepts as well as the correspondingly proposed statistics are strongly in line with reality.</p></div

    The long-term spatial-temporal trends and burden of esophageal cancer in one high-risk area: A population-registered study in Feicheng, China

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Feicheng County is a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in Shandong province, China. It is important to determine the long-term spatio-temporal trends in epidemiological characteristics and the burden of esophageal cancer, especially since the implementation of the national esophageal cancer screening program for early detection and treatment in 2005.</p><p>Methods</p><p>The data collected in Feicheng County from 2001 to 2012 was extracted from the whole-population cancer registry system. The incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and changing trends in esophageal cancer according to age and sex were calculated and described.</p><p>Results</p><p>The incidence rate of esophageal cancer in Feicheng was consistently high, and increased significantly for male, but not for female from 2001 to 2012, according to the joinpoint regression analysis. The highest and lowest yearly crude incidence rates were 160.78 and 95.97 per 100000 for males, and 81.36 and 52.17 per 100000 for females. The highest and lowest crude yearly mortality rates were 122.26 and 94.40 per 100000 for males, and 60.75 and 49.35 per 100000for females. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was the main pathology type and the tumor location changed significantly from 2001 to 2012. Overall, the DALY remained roughly stable and was estimated as 11.50 for males and 4.90 for females per 1000 people. The burden was mainly caused by premature death. There is an obvious spatial pattern in the distribution of incidence density and burden.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Esophageal cancer remains a public health issue in Feicheng County with a high incidence, mortality and disease burden. The incidence and burden have obvious spatial heterogeneity, and further studies should be conducted to identify geographical risk factors for precise local prevention and control measures.</p></div

    "There are many possibilities how to spend a spring night...": About City Cipher Games Phenomenon

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    The presented Diploma Thesis deals with the phenomenon of city cipher games. Research was performed by the researcher participation in four city cipher games in Prague, by semi- structured and informal interviews and by cipher games web sites analysis It considers cipher games postmodern enjoyment which is characteristic for emphasizing an experience. The thesis is focused on two task groups: game and city. It examines city cipher games attributes, asks how players take the game and tries to realize the motivation for their participation. It shows that players undergo physical and intellectual exhaustion, discomfort and little hazard. Very strong experience connected with own limits' overcoming is the reason why they join the game again. Other essential reason is the unusual connection between a type of summer camp game and the city world. City is a coulisse with atmosphere for the game. Players experience the city in an unusual way. They learn to know it differently. They are undergoing a type of psychogeographic method. So the game not only takes benefits from the city but also creates players' relationships to the city. Players learn to know the city. It is important to mention that city and game are paramount arenas for freedom exerting