231 research outputs found

    Two-path succussive relaying with hybrid demodulate and forward

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    This paper proposes a novel demodulation-and-forward (DMF) scheme for the two-path succussive relay system. While the two-path relaying avoids the data rate loss that occurs in many one-relay cooperative systems, its performance is severely limited by interrelay interference. In this paper, we propose a hybrid DMF scheme for the two-path relay system so that the relays can switch between direct and differential demodulation modes according to channel conditions. The hybrid DMF scheme not only performs better than existing two-path approaches but is easy to achieve synchronization at the relays as well, which is particularly important as a relay receives signals from both the source and the other relay. The proposed hybrid DMF scheme provides an innovative way to implement the two-path relaying scheme

    Графический дизайн как визуальный язык межкультурного взаимодействия

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    This article describes how visual graphics language as a sign system can be in contact with the audience, overcoming the language barrier. In terms of graphic design it can be available to transfer information, and even affect the viewer, causing artistic and emotional reflection.Эта статья о том, как визуальный язык графики в виде знаковой символики может входить в контакт со зрителем, преодолевая языковый барьер. На языке графического дизайна можно доступно передать информацию и даже воздействовать на зрителя, вызывая при этом художественно-эмоциональные образы

    Air quality modeling for effective environmental management in the mining region

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    <p>Air quality in the mining sector is a serious environmental concern and associated with many health issues. Air quality management in mining regions has been facing many challenges due to lack of understanding of atmospheric factors and physical removal mechanisms. A modeling approach called the mining air dispersion model (MADM) is developed to predict air pollutants concentration in the mining region while considering the deposition effect. The model takes into account the planet’s boundary conditions and assumes that the eddy diffusivity depends on the downwind distance. The developed MADM is applied to a mining site in Canada. The model provides values for the predicted concentrations of PM<sub>10</sub>, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, TSP, NO<sub>2</sub>, and six heavy metals (As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr) at various receptor locations. The model shows that neutral stability conditions are dominant for the study site. The maximum mixing height is achieved (1280 m) during the evening in summer, and the minimum mixing height (380 m) is attained during the evening in winter. The dust fall (PM coarse) deposition flux is maximum during February and March with a deposition velocity of 4.67 cm/sec. The results are evaluated with the monitoring field values, revealing a good agreement for the target air pollutants with <i>R</i>-squared ranging from 0.72 to 0.96 for PM<sub>2.5</sub>, from 0.71 to 0.82 for PM<sub>10</sub>, and from 0.71 to 0.89 for NO<sub>2</sub>. The analyses illustrate that the presented algorithm in this model can be used to assess air quality for the mining site in a systematic way. Comparisons of MADM and CALPUFF modeling values are made for four different pollutants (PM<sub>2.5</sub>, PM<sub>10</sub>, TSP, and NO<sub>2</sub>) under three different atmospheric stability classes (stable, neutral, and unstable). Further, MADM results are statistically tested against CALPUFF for the air pollutants and model performance is found satisfactory.</p> <p><i>Implications</i>: The mathematical model (MADM) is developed by extending the Gaussian equation particularly when examining the settling process of important pollutants for the industrial region. Physical removal effects of air pollutants with field data have been considerred for the MADM development and for an extensive field case study. The model is well validated in the field of an open pit mine to assess the regional air quality. The MADA model helps to facilitate the management of the mining industry in doing estimation of emission rate around mining activities and predicting the resulted concentration of air pollutants together in one integrated approach.</p

    Dynamically Coupled 3D Pollutant Dispersion Model for Assessing Produced Water Discharges in the Canadian Offshore Area

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    Produced water is the contaminated water that is brought to the surface in the process of recovering oil and gas. On the basis of discharge volume, this type of contaminated water is the largest contributor to the offshore waste stream. Modeling studies of large amounts of wastewater discharge into offshore areas have helped in the understanding of pollutant dispersion behaviors in marine environments and in further evaluating the potential environmental effects resulting from produced water discharges. This study presents an integrated three-dimensional (3D) approach for the simulation of produced water discharges in offshore areas. Specifically, an explicit second-order finite difference method was used to model the far-field pollutant dispersion behavior, and this method was coupled with the jet-plume model JETLAG with an extension of the 3D cross-flow conditions to simulate the near-field mixing processes. A dynamic coupling technique with full consideration of the interaction between the discharged fluids and receiving waters was employed in the model. A case study was conducted on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada. The field validation of the modeling results was conducted for both the near-field and far-field dispersion processes, and the modeling results were in good agreement with the field observations. This study provides an integrated system tool for the simulation of complex transport processes in offshore areas, and the results from such modeling systems can be further used for the risk assessment analysis of the surface water environment

    Buffer-aided max-link relay selection in amplify-and-forward cooperative networks

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    This paper investigates the outage performance of an amplify-and-forward (AF) relay system that exploits buffer-aided max-link relay selection. Both asymmetric and symmetric source-to-relay and relay-to-destination channel configurations are considered. We derive the closed-form expressions for the outage probability and analyze the average packet delays. We prove that the diversity order is between N and 2N (where N is the relay number) , corresponding to a relay buffer size between 1 and ∞, respectively. We also analytically show the coding gain. Numerical results are given to verify the theoretical analyses

    The salient region.

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    <p>The salient region.</p

    Wilcoxon pairwise test result of our method vs. method in reference [19].

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    <p>Wilcoxon pairwise test result of our method vs. method in reference [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0188118#pone.0188118.ref019" target="_blank">19</a>].</p

    Meta-analysis of effect of TNF-α promoter polymorphisms on the risk of HBV persistence.

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    <p>*-308 A/A and -238 A/A were rare genotypes. Therefore, some studies had to be excluded because they contained no individuals carrying these genotypes. In the study on -308 AA <i>vs</i>. GA +GG, the report by Kummee <i>et al</i><a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019606#pone.0019606-Kummee1" target="_blank">[20]</a> was excluded; in -238 GG <i>vs</i>. AA and -238 AA <i>vs</i>. GA +GG, Cheong <i>et al</i><a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019606#pone.0019606-Cheong1" target="_blank">[10]</a> and Li <i>et al</i><a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0019606#pone.0019606-Li1" target="_blank">[17]</a> were excluded.</p><p>Abbreviations: CHB, chronic HBV infection; HC, HBV clearance; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; df, degree of freedom.</p

    Average F-measures obtained from different settings of <i>m</i>.

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    <p>Average F-measures obtained from different settings of <i>m</i>.</p
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