796 research outputs found

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    Batch Belief Trees for Motion Planning Under Uncertainty

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    In this work, we develop the Batch Belief Trees (BBT) algorithm for motion planning under motion and sensing uncertainties. The algorithm interleaves between batch sampling, building a graph of nominal trajectories in the state space, and searching over the graph to find belief space motion plans. By searching over the graph, BBT finds sophisticated plans that will visit (and revisit) information-rich regions to reduce uncertainty. One of the key benefits of this algorithm is the modified interplay between exploration and exploitation. Instead of an exhaustive search (exploitation) after one exploration step, the proposed algorithm uses batch samples to explore the state space and, in addition, does not require exhaustive search before the next iteration of batch sampling, which adds flexibility.The algorithm finds motion plans that converge to the optimal one as more samples are added to the graph. We test BBT in different planning environments. Our numerical investigation confirms that BBT finds non-trivial motion plans and is faster compared with previous similar methods

    LEA*: An A* Variant Algorithm with Improved Edge Efficiency for Robot Motion Planning

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    In this work, we introduce a new graph search algorithm, lazy edged based A* (LEA*), for robot motion planning. By using an edge queue and exploiting the idea of lazy search, LEA* is optimally vertex efficient similar to A*, and has improved edge efficiency compared to A*. LEA* is simple and easy to implement with minimum modification to A*, resulting in a very small overhead compared to previous lazy search algorithms. We also explore the effect of inflated heuristics, which results in the weighted LEA* (wLEA*). We show that the edge efficiency of wLEA* becomes close to LazySP and, thus is near-optimal. We test LEA* and wLEA* on 2D planning problems and planning of a 7-DOF manipulator. We perform a thorough comparison with previous algorithms by considering sparse, medium, and cluttered random worlds and small, medium, and large graph sizes. Our results show that LEA* and wLEA* are the fastest algorithms to find the plan compared to previous algorithms

    IBBT: Informed Batch Belief Trees for Motion Planning Under Uncertainty

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    In this work, we propose the Informed Batch Belief Trees (IBBT) algorithm for motion planning under motion and sensing uncertainties. The original stochastic motion planning problem is divided into a deterministic motion planning problem and a graph search problem. We solve the deterministic planning problem using sampling-based methods such as PRM or RRG to construct a graph of nominal trajectories. Then, an informed cost-to-go heuristic for the original problem is computed based on the nominal trajectory graph. Finally, we grow a belief tree by searching over the graph using the proposed heuristic. IBBT interleaves between batch state sampling, nominal trajectory graph construction, heuristic computing, and search over the graph to find belief space motion plans. IBBT is an anytime, incremental algorithm. With an increasing number of batches of samples added to the graph, the algorithm finds motion plans that converge to the optimal one. IBBT is efficient by reusing results between sequential iterations. The belief tree searching is an ordered search guided by an informed heuristic. We test IBBT in different planning environments. Our numerical investigation confirms that IBBT finds non-trivial motion plans and is faster compared with previous similar methods.Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2110.0017

    The impact of pension insurance types on the health of older adults in China: a study based on the 2018 CHARLS data

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    IntroductionPension insurance is an essential safeguard for the quality of life and health of older adults because it provides a stable and dependable source of income after retirement. China has constructed a multi-level social security system to accommodate the diverse needs of older adults, and offers various levels of pension insurance to maximize their interests.MethodsThis study uses propensity score matching and ordinary least squares techniques to analyze 7,359 data from the 2018 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in order to explore the relationship between different pension insurance categories and the health of older individuals.ResultsThe research findings reveal that advanced insurances greatly benefit the health of older adults more than basic pension insurances, and the findings pass the robustness test. In addition, the effect was found to be heterogeneous, depending on the location of retirement and the marital status of older adults.Our findings suggest that both material and non-material consumption may be potential mechanisms by which pension insurance affects the health of older adults, providing new evidence for the causal mechanism between pension insurance and the health of older adults.DiscussionThis study expands the scope of research on the health effects of pension insurance by covering a large representative sample across the country. The results show the important impact of the level of pension insurance on the health of older adults and can contribute to the development of social policies to promote the physical and mental health of older adults

    Indoor simultaneous localization and mapping based on fringe projection profilometry

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    Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) plays an important role in outdoor and indoor applications ranging from autonomous driving to indoor robotics. Outdoor SLAM has been widely used with the assistance of LiDAR or GPS. For indoor applications, the LiDAR technique does not satisfy the accuracy requirement and the GPS signals will be lost. An accurate and efficient scene sensing technique is required for indoor SLAM. As the most promising 3D sensing technique, the opportunities for indoor SLAM with fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems are obvious, but methods to date have not fully leveraged the accuracy and speed of sensing that such systems offer. In this paper, we propose a novel FPP-based indoor SLAM method based on the coordinate transformation relationship of FPP, where the 2D-to-3D descriptor-assisted is used for mapping and localization. The correspondences generated by matching descriptors are used for fast and accurate mapping, and the transform estimation between the 2D and 3D descriptors is used to localize the sensor. The provided experimental results demonstrate that the proposed indoor SLAM can achieve the localization and mapping accuracy around one millimeter

    Your "Flamingo" is My "Bird": Fine-Grained, or Not

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    Whether what you see in Figure 1 is a "flamingo" or a "bird", is the question we ask in this paper. While fine-grained visual classification (FGVC) strives to arrive at the former, for the majority of us non-experts just "bird" would probably suffice. The real question is therefore -- how can we tailor for different fine-grained definitions under divergent levels of expertise. For that, we re-envisage the traditional setting of FGVC, from single-label classification, to that of top-down traversal of a pre-defined coarse-to-fine label hierarchy -- so that our answer becomes "bird"-->"Phoenicopteriformes"-->"Phoenicopteridae"-->"flamingo". To approach this new problem, we first conduct a comprehensive human study where we confirm that most participants prefer multi-granularity labels, regardless whether they consider themselves experts. We then discover the key intuition that: coarse-level label prediction exacerbates fine-grained feature learning, yet fine-level feature betters the learning of coarse-level classifier. This discovery enables us to design a very simple albeit surprisingly effective solution to our new problem, where we (i) leverage level-specific classification heads to disentangle coarse-level features with fine-grained ones, and (ii) allow finer-grained features to participate in coarser-grained label predictions, which in turn helps with better disentanglement. Experiments show that our method achieves superior performance in the new FGVC setting, and performs better than state-of-the-art on traditional single-label FGVC problem as well. Thanks to its simplicity, our method can be easily implemented on top of any existing FGVC frameworks and is parameter-free.Comment: Accepted as an oral of CVPR2021. Code: https://github.com/PRIS-CV/Fine-Grained-or-No
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