34,889 research outputs found

    Migration, Labor Market Flexibility, and Wage Determination in China: A Review

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    This paper reviews economic studies on rural-urban migration issues in China. The paper focuses on four issues: the household registration system in China, the profile of the migrants, explanations for rural-to-urban migration, and the interaction between migration and labor market evolution, with special reference to labor market segregation, labor market flexibility, and wage differentials. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research topics.Migration, Labor Market, Segregation, Mobility, China

    Instability of an inverse problem for the stationary radiative transport near the diffusion limit

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    In this work, we study the instability of an inverse problem of radiative transport equation with angularly averaged measurement near the diffusion limit, i.e. the normalized mean free path (the Knudsen number) 0 < \eps \ll 1. It is well-known that there is a transition of stability from H\"{o}lder type to logarithmic type with \eps\to 0, the theory of this transition of stability is still an open problem. In this study, we show the transition of stability by establishing the balance of two different regimes depending on the relative sizes of \eps and the perturbation in measurements. When \eps is sufficiently small, we obtain exponential instability, which stands for the diffusive regime, and otherwise we obtain H\"{o}lder instability instead, which stands for the transport regime.Comment: 20 page

    Parental Job Loss and Children’s Health: Ten Years after the Massive Layoff of the SOEs’ Workers in China

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    Beginning in the mid 1990s, China sped up its urban labor market reform and drastically restructured its state-owned enterprises (SOEs), which resulted in massive layoff of the SOEs' workers and a high unemployment rate. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the parents’ job loss on the health of their children, using six waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey covering the period from 1991 to 2006. We find that paternal job loss has a significant negative effect on children's health, whilst maternal job loss has no significant effect. The rationale behind the findings is that the income loss resulting from maternal job loss is much smaller; at the same time, the unemployed mothers are likely to increase the time they devote to care of their children, and this may alleviate the negative effect resulting from maternal job loss. Our findings are robust to various specifications.children’s health, job loss, Grossman’s model, China

    Social-Family Network and Self-Employment: Evidence from Temporary Rural-Urban Migrants in China

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    We hypothesize that individuals with a larger social-family network are more likely to choose self-employment. We test this hypothesis using data on temporary rural-urban migrants in China. The size of a migrant’s social-family network is measured by the number of relatives and friends this migrant greeted during the past Spring Festival. Our empirical analysis faces two challenges. First, there is an endogeneity problem in that a migrant may want to develop and maintain a large social-family network exactly because he is self-employed. For this reason, a simple correlation between the probability of being self-employed and the size of the migrant’s social-family network cannot be interpreted as causal. Second, the size of the social-family network is measured using survey data, which is subject to measurement error. To overcome these problems, we take an instrumental variable (IV) approach. More specifically, we examine the distance an individual migrated when he first moved to a city and use this variable to instrument for the current size of the social-family network. We establish the credibility of the IV by emphasizing the unique institutional context of rural-urban migration in China and focusing on the sample of migrants who originally started as wage workers in urban areas and currently are not in their first jobs. Our IV results indeed show that a rural-urban migrant with a larger social-family network is more likely to be self-employed in the city. This finding is robust to alternative model specifications and various restrictions on the sample used in estimation.social-family network, self-employment, rural-urban migrants

    On the four-zero texture of quark mass matrices and its stability

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    We carry out a new study of quark mass matrices MuM^{}_{\rm u} (up-type) and MdM^{}_{\rm d} (down-type) which are Hermitian and have four zero entries, and find a new part of the parameter space which was missed in the previous works. We identify two more specific four-zero patterns of MuM^{}_{\rm u} and MdM^{}_{\rm d} with fewer free parameters, and present two toy flavor-symmetry models which can help realize such special and interesting quark flavor structures. We also show that the texture zeros of MuM^{}_{\rm u} and MdM^{}_{\rm d} are essentially stable against the evolution of energy scales in an analytical way by using the one-loop renormalization-group equations.Comment: 33 pages, 4 figures, minor comments added, version to appear in Nucl. Phys.

    Does human imitate successful behaviors immediately?

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    The emergence and abundance of cooperation in animal and human societies is a challenging puzzle to evolutionary biology. Over the past decades, various mechanisms have been suggested which are capable of supporting cooperation. Imitation dynamics, however, are the most representative microscopic rules of human behaviors on studying these mechanisms. Their standard procedure is to choose the agent to imitate at random from the population. In the spatial version this means a random agent from the neighborhood. Hence, imitation rules do not include the possibility to explore the available strategies, and then they have the possibility to reach a homogeneous state rapidly when the population size is small. To prevent evolution stopping, theorists allow for random mutations in addition to the imitation dynamics. Consequently, if the microscopic rules involve both imitation and mutation, the frequency of agents switching to the more successful strategy must be higher than that of them transiting to the same target strategy via mutation dynamics. Here we show experimentally that the frequency of switching to successful strategy approximates to that of mutating to the same strategy. This suggests that imitation might play an insignificant role on the behaviors of human decision making. In addition, our experiments show that the probabilities of agents mutating to different target strategies are significantly distinct. The actual mutation theories cannot give us an appropriate explanation to the experimental results. Hence, we argue that the mutation dynamics might have evolved for other reasons

    Publisher Correction: Effects of porosity on dynamic indentation resistance of silica nanofoam.

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    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper