345 research outputs found

    Manipulation of electronic and magnetic properties of M2_2C (M=Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V, Zr) monolayer by applying mechanical strains

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    Tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of a material through strain engineering is an effective strategy to enhance the performance of electronic and spintronic devices. Recently synthesized two-dimensional transition metal carbides M2_2C (M=Hf, Nb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V, Zr), known as MXenes, has aroused increasingly attentions in nanoelectronic technology due to their unusual properties. In this paper, first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are carried out to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of M2_2C subjected to biaxial symmetric mechanical strains. At the strain-free state, all these MXenes exhibit no spontaneous magnetism except for Ti2_2C and Zr2_2C which show a magnetic moment of 1.92 and 1.25 μB\mu_B/unit, respectively. As the tensile strain increases, the magnetic moments of MXenes are greatly enhanced and a transition from nonmagnetism to ferromagnetism is observed for those nonmagnetic MXenes at zero strains. The most distinct transition is found in Hf2_2C, in which the magnetic moment is elevated to 1.5 μB\mu_B/unit at a strain of 15%. We further show that the magnetic properties of Hf2_2C are attributed to the band shift mainly composed of Hf(5dd) states. This strain-tunable magnetism can be utilized to design future spintronics based on MXenes

    Effect of Silica Fume in Concrete on Mechanical Properties and Dynamic Behaviors under Impact Loading

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    The effect of silica fume (SF) in concrete on mechanical properties and dynamic behaviors was experimentally studied by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) device with pulse shaping technique. Three series of concrete with 0, 12%, and 16% SF as a cement replacement by weight were produced firstly. Then the experimental procedure for dynamic tests of concrete specimens with SF under a high loading rate was presented. Considering the mechanical performance and behaviors of the concrete mixtures, those tests were conducted under five different impact velocities. The experimental results clearly show concrete with different levels of SF is a strain-rate sensitive material. The tensile strength under impact loading of the tested specimens was generally improved with the increasing content of SF levels in concrete. Additionally, the tensile strength under impact loading of the concrete enhances with the increase of the strain rates. Finally, failure modes, dynamic tensile strength, dynamic increase factor (DIF), and critical strain are discussed and analyzed. These investigations are useful to improve the understanding of the effect of SF in concrete and guide the design of concrete structures

    Effect of Silica Fume in Concrete on Mechanical Properties and Dynamic Behaviors under Impact Loading

    Get PDF
    The effect of silica fume (SF) in concrete on mechanical properties and dynamic behaviors was experimentally studied by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) device with pulse shaping technique. Three series of concrete with 0, 12%, and 16% SF as a cement replacement by weight were produced firstly. Then the experimental procedure for dynamic tests of concrete specimens with SF under a high loading rate was presented. Considering the mechanical performance and behaviors of the concrete mixtures, those tests were conducted under five different impact velocities. The experimental results clearly show concrete with different levels of SF is a strain-rate sensitive material. The tensile strength under impact loading of the tested specimens was generally improved with the increasing content of SF levels in concrete. Additionally, the tensile strength under impact loading of the concrete enhances with the increase of the strain rates. Finally, failure modes, dynamic tensile strength, dynamic increase factor (DIF), and critical strain are discussed and analyzed. These investigations are useful to improve the understanding of the effect of SF in concrete and guide the design of concrete structures

    Link between K-absorption edges and thermodynamic properties of warm-dense plasmas established by improved first-principles method

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    A precise calculation that translates shifts of X-ray K-absorption edges to variations of thermodynamic properties allows quantitative characterization of interior thermodynamic properties of warm dense plasmas by X-ray absorption techniques, which provides essential information for inertial confinement fusion and other astrophysical applications. We show that this interpretation can be achieved through an improved first-principles method. Our calculation shows that the shift of K-edges exhibits selective sensitivity to thermal parameters and thus would be a suitable temperature index to warm dense plasmas. We also show with a simple model that the shift of K-edges can be used to detect inhomogeneity inside warm dense plasmas when combined with other experimental tools

    On Enhancing Expressive Power via Compositions of Single Fixed-Size ReLU Network

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    This paper explores the expressive power of deep neural networks through the framework of function compositions. We demonstrate that the repeated compositions of a single fixed-size ReLU network exhibit surprising expressive power, despite the limited expressive capabilities of the individual network itself. Specifically, we prove by construction that L2grL1\mathcal{L}_2\circ \boldsymbol{g}^{\circ r}\circ \boldsymbol{\mathcal{L}}_1 can approximate 11-Lipschitz continuous functions on [0,1]d[0,1]^d with an error O(r1/d)\mathcal{O}(r^{-1/d}), where g\boldsymbol{g} is realized by a fixed-size ReLU network, L1\boldsymbol{\mathcal{L}}_1 and L2\mathcal{L}_2 are two affine linear maps matching the dimensions, and gr\boldsymbol{g}^{\circ r} denotes the rr-times composition of g\boldsymbol{g}. Furthermore, we extend such a result to generic continuous functions on [0,1]d[0,1]^d with the approximation error characterized by the modulus of continuity. Our results reveal that a continuous-depth network generated via a dynamical system has immense approximation power even if its dynamics function is time-independent and realized by a fixed-size ReLU network

    Whole Sky Infrared Remote Sensing of Cloud

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    AbstractClouds are important factors in weather and climate change. Cloud amount, type and height are measured by means of both visual observation on ground and satellites ever before. In recent years, instruments of measuring clouds on ground have been developed. This paper introduces our progress on ground based whole sky infrared remote sensing of cloud. Some results are given. A method for determining clear sky radiance threshold was suggested, and cloud identification combined threshold method with texture method was discussed. An algorithm retrieving cloud base height from downwelling infrared radiance was suggested. Cloud classification of ground based whole sky cloud images was discussed. Structural features are better than texture features in classifying clouds

    First-Principles Calculation of Principal Hugoniot and K-Shell X-ray Absorption Spectra for Warm Dense KCl

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    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. Pressure ionization and thermal smearing are shown as the major factors to prevent the deviation of pressure from global accumulation along the Hugoniot. In addition, cancellation between electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure further reduces the deviation. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the 3p3p electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter
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