9 research outputs found

    Supplementary Material for: Metabonomic Profiling Reveals Difference in Altered Metabolic Pathways Between Chronic Kidney Disease and High-Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats

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    <b><i>Background/Aims:</i></b> Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is closely correlated with the development of insulin resistance (IR). Until now, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to identify metabolites and molecular pathways unique to CKD-induced IR. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) analysis coupled with orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed to profile metabolites in the serum, liver, and muscle tissues and to analyze molecular pathways in relation to CKD- and high fat diet (HFD)-induced IR in the rats. <b><i>Results:</i></b> At 18 weeks after the 5/6 Nx operation, CKD induction was demonstrated by renal histology and biochemical tests. Furthermore, both CKD-induced IR and HFD-induced IR rats showed significantly greater levels of fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). In the UPLC-MS in combination with OPLS-DA analysis, we identified 101, 59, and 41 differential metabolites in the serum, liver, and muscle, which were associated with the CKD-induced IR, while 58, 38, and 17 differential metabolites in the serum, liver, and muscle were revealed in the HFD-induced rats compared to controls. Moreover, compared to HFD-induced IR rats, those with CKD-induced IR exhibited abnormal pathways primarily in the tryptophan metabolism, arginine metabolism, and trimethylamine oxide metabolite. Interestingly, altered metabolites in the CKD-induced IR and HFD-induced IR displayed an opposite direction. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Alterations in metabolites and relevant pathways were significantly different between the CKD- and HFD-induced IR rats. These findings may offer important information regarding the pathogenesis specific to IR caused by the decline in the renal function

    Supplementary Material for: Loss of Pten in renal tubular cells leads to water retention by upregulating AQP2

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    Introduction: Phosphatase and tensin (PTEN) is a multifunctional gene associated with the normal development and physiological function of various tissues including the kidney. However, its role in renal tubular reabsorption function has not been well elucidated. Methods: We generated a renal tubule-specific Pten knockout mouse model by crossing Ptenfl/fl mice with Ksp-Cre transgenic mice, evaluated the effect of Pten loss on renal tubular function, and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Results: Pten loss resulted in abnormal renal structure and function and water retention in multiple organs. Our results also demonstrated that aquaporin-2 AQP2, an important water channel protein, was upregulated and concentrated on the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct cells, which could be responsible for the impaired water balance in Pten loss mice. The regulation of Pten loss on AQP2 was mediated by Protein kinase B (AKT) activation. Discussion/Conclusions: Our results reveal a connection between PTEN gene inactivation and water retention, suggesting the importance of PTEN in normal kidney development and function

    Supplementary Material for: Perilipin1 deficiency prompts lipolysis in lipid droplets and aggravates the pathogenesis of persistent immune activation in Drosophila

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    Lipid droplets (LDs) are highly dynamic intracellular organelles, which are involved in lots of biological processes. However, the dynamic morphogenesis and functions of intracellular LDs during persistent innate immune responses remain obscure. In this study, we induce long-term systemic immune activation in Drosophila through genetic manipulation. Then, the dynamic pattern of LDs is traced in the Drosophila fat body. We find that deficiency of Plin1, a key regulator of LDs’ reconfiguration, blocks LDs minimization at the initial stage of immune hyperactivation but enhances LDs breakdown at the later stage of sustained immune activation via recruiting the lipase Brummer (Bmm, homologous to human ATGL). The high wasting in LDs shortens the lifespan of flies with high-energy-cost immune hyperactivation. Therefore, these results suggest a critical function of LDs during long-term immune activation and provide a potential treatment for the resolution of persistent inflammation

    Supplementary Material for: Perilipin1 deficiency prompts lipolysis in lipid droplets and aggravates the pathogenesis of persistent immune activation in Drosophila

    No full text
    Lipid droplets (LDs) are highly dynamic intracellular organelles, which are involved in lots of biological processes. However, the dynamic morphogenesis and functions of intracellular LDs during persistent innate immune responses remain obscure. In this study, we induce long-term systemic immune activation in Drosophila through genetic manipulation. Then, the dynamic pattern of LDs is traced in the Drosophila fat body. We find that deficiency of Plin1, a key regulator of LDs’ reconfiguration, blocks LDs minimization at the initial stage of immune hyperactivation but enhances LDs breakdown at the later stage of sustained immune activation via recruiting the lipase Brummer (Bmm, homologous to human ATGL). The high wasting in LDs shortens the lifespan of flies with high-energy-cost immune hyperactivation. Therefore, these results suggest a critical function of LDs during long-term immune activation and provide a potential treatment for the resolution of persistent inflammation

    Supplementary Material for: Morbidity after Hemorrhage in Children with Untreated Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

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    <strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Children with untreated brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) are at risk of encountering life-threatening hemorrhage very early in their lives. The primary aim of invasive treatment is to reduce unfavorable outcome associated with a bAVM rupture. A better understanding of the morbidity of bAVM hemorrhage might be helpful for weighing the risks of untreated bAVM and invasive treatment. Our aim was to assess the clinical outcome after bAVM rupture and identify features to predict severe hemorrhage in children. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We identified all consecutive children admitted to our institution for bAVMs between July 2009 and December 2014. Clinical outcome after hemorrhagic presentation and subsequent hemorrhage was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) for children. The association of demographic characteristics and bAVM morphology with severe hemorrhage (mRS >3 or requiring emergency hematoma evacuation) was studied using univariate and multivariable regression analyses. A nomogram based on multivariable analysis was formulated to predict severe hemorrhage risk for individual patients. <b><i>Results:</i></b> A total of 134 patients were identified with a mean treatment-free follow-up period of 2.1 years. bAVM ruptured in 83 (62%) children: 82 had a hemorrhage at presentation and 6 of them experienced a recurrent hemorrhage during follow-up; 1 patient had other diagnostic symptoms but bled during follow-up. Among them, 49% (41/83) had a severe hemorrhage; emergency hematoma evacuation was required in 28% of them (23/83), and 24% (20/83) remained as disabled (mRS ≥3) at last follow-up. Forty-six percent (38/82) of children with hemorrhagic presentation were severely disabled (mRS >3). Forty-three percent (3/7) were severely disabled after subsequent hemorrhage. The annual rate of severe subsequent hemorrhage was 1% in the overall cohort and 3.3% in children with ruptured presentation. All the subsequent severe hemorrhage events occurred in children with severe hemorrhage history (7%, 3/41). Periventricular location, non-temporal lobe location, and long draining vein were predictors for severe hemorrhage in pediatric untreated bAVMs. A nomogram based on bAVM morphology was contracted to predict severe hemorrhage risk for individual patients, which was well calibrated and had a good discriminative ability (adjusted C-statistic, 0.72). <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Evaluating bAVM morbidity and morphology might be helpful for weighing the risks of untreated bAVM in pediatric patients

    Supplementary Material for: Opinions over targets for blood pressure control after mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke: baseline survey for the ENCHANTED2/MT trial in China

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    Background: Although guidelines recommend a target blood pressure 185-180/105-110 mmHg after mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS), there is limited randomized evidence to support this level. We surveyed candidate institutions about the approach to blood pressure management in this patient group in preparation for inviting them to participate in the Enhanced Blood Pressure Control after Endovascular Thrombectomy for the Acute Ischemic Stroke Trial (ENCHANTED2/MT). Methods: Physicians from a professional network of institutions that met mechanical thrombectomy qualification requirements were invited to participate in an online questionnaire covering basic clinical information as well as questions on blood pressure management. Results: We invited 88 sites to participate with 44 (50%) ultimately joining the trial, and a total of 88 physicians finished the survey. The median number of annual mechanical thrombectomy cases performed per site was 89 [IQR 65-150]. Only 38 (43%) institutions strictly adhere to guidelines when managing the blood pressure of mechanical thrombectomy patients. The most popular blood pressure target for reperfusion patients was 140-160 mmHg (n=47, 53%), and <120 mmHg (n=28, 32%). Fewer hospital stroke beds (40 [21–57] vs. 60 [39–110], p = 0.01) and lower proportion of elevated blood pressure after mechanical thrombectomy (25% [10%–50%] vs. 50% [20%–70%], p = 0.02) were related to a more aggressive blood pressure target (<120 mmHg). Urapidil (n=82, 93%) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (n = 87, 99%), were the most widely used antihypertensive drugs, respectively. Conclusions: According to the survey, unstandardized blood pressure management protocols are performed in mechanical thrombectomy patients at institutions across China, which is different from prior survey from another country. More high-quality studies are needed to guide clinical practice

    Supplementary Material for: A New System Identification Approach to Identify Genetic Variants in Sequencing Studies for a Binary Phenotype

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    We propose in this paper a set-valued (SV) system model, which is a generalized form of logistic (LG) and Probit (Probit) regression, to be considered as a method for discovering genetic variants, especially rare genetic variants in next-generation sequencing studies, for a binary phenotype. We propose a new SV system identification method to estimate all underlying key system parameters for the Probit model and compare it with the LG model in the setting of genetic association studies. Across an extensive series of simulation studies, the Probit method maintained type I error control and had similar or greater power than the LG method, which is robust to different distributions of noise: logistic, normal, or t distributions. Additionally, the Probit association parameter estimate was 2.7-46.8-fold less variable than the LG log-odds ratio association parameter estimate. Less variability in the association parameter estimate translates to greater power and robustness across the spectrum of minor allele frequencies (MAFs), and these advantages are the most pronounced for rare variants. For instance, in a simulation that generated data from an additive logistic model with an odds ratio of 7.4 for a rare single nucleotide polymorphism with a MAF of 0.005 and a sample size of 2,300, the Probit method had 60% power whereas the LG method had 25% power at the α = 10<sup>-6</sup> level. Consistent with these simulation results, the set of variants identified by the LG method was a subset of those identified by the Probit method in two example analyses. Thus, we suggest the Probit method may be a competitive alternative to the LG method in genetic association studies such as candidate gene, genome-wide, or next-generation sequencing studies for a binary phenotype
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