16 research outputs found

    Chromosomal locations of 32 <i>BraMAPK</i> genes.

    No full text
    <p>The scale on the left is in megabases. The chromosome numbers are indicated above each chromosome. The gene names are on the left side of each chromosome, according to the approximate physical location (right side) of each <i>BraMAPK</i> gene.</p

    Main structural features of the <i>BraMAPK</i> family members.

    No full text
    <p>Type of error A: exon splicing error; B: excessive splicing of the 5' sequence; C: excessive retention of the 5' sequence; D sequencing error of the 3' end. Subgenome and triplication block information of <i>BraMAPK</i> genes were derived from BRAD.</p><p>Main structural features of the <i>BraMAPK</i> family members.</p

    Expression profiles of <i>BraMPK</i> genes in the seedling leaves treated with different hormones.

    No full text
    <p>Expression levels of <i>BraMAPK</i> genes assayed by qRT-PCR under ABA (100 μM), 6-BA (10 μM), BR (2.5 μM), GA<sub>3</sub> (25 μM), NAA (10 μM) and IAA (10 μM) hormone treatments. The relative expressions (ΔΔCt) were compared to expressions in mock-treated samples, and used to create the heat map. Data represents a mean value of three repeats from three independent qRT-PCR assays. Asterisk (*) on the right corner of number indicate the significant difference (<i>p</i>-value < 0.05) compared with mock-treated controls. The color scale represents the relative expression levels (red refers to up-regulation of gene expression, green to down-regulation of gene expression, and white indicates unchanged gene expression). ABA: abscisic acid; 6-BA: 6-benzyladenine; BR: brassinolide; GA<sub>3</sub>: gibberellic acid; NAA: <i>α</i>-naphthaleneacetic acid; IAA: indole acetic acid.</p

    Multiple sequence alignment of the kinase domains of 32 BraMAPK proteins.

    No full text
    <p>Alignment was performed using ClustalW2 and displayed using GeneDoc. Identical sequences are highlighted in black and similar residues in gray shading. The 11 kinase subdomains are in italicized roman numerals (I to XI) above the sequence. P-loop, C-loop, activation-loop motifs and common docking domain are indicated by lines above the alignments. The phosphorylation-activation motif TXY is indicated by an asterisk. Bra: <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>.</p

    Heat map showing expression levels of <i>BraMPK</i> genes in the seedling leaves under abiotic stresses.

    No full text
    <p>Transcription levels of <i>BraMPAK</i> genes were determined by qRT-PCR with gene-specific primers under salt (200 mM NaCl), heat (37°C), cold (4°C), osmotic (10% PEG-8000), waterlogging, and wound stresses. The relative expressions (ΔΔCt) were compared to expressions in mock-treated samples, and used to create the heat map. Data represents a mean value of three repeats from three independent qRT-PCR assays. SS, HS, LS, OS, WL, and WS denote salt, heat, cold, osmotic, waterlogging, and wound stress treatments, respectively. Asterisk (*) on the right corner of number indicate the significant difference (<i>p</i>-value < 0.05) compared with mock-treated controls. The color scale represents the relative expression levels (red refers to up-regulation of gene expression, green to down-regulation of gene expression, and white indicates unchanged gene expression).</p

    Tissue-specific expression profiles of <i>BraMPK</i> genes.

    No full text
    <p>The tissue-specific expression levels of 32 <i>BraMPK</i> genes were obtained from the RNA-seq data (accession number GSE43245) and resulting FPKM values. This heat map was generated based on the log<sub>2</sub>-transformed (FPKM + 1) values of 32 <i>BraMAPK</i> genes in six different tissues (callus, root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique). Red indicates high expression and white indicates low expression.</p

    Phylogenetic relationships of plant <i>MAPK</i> proteins.

    No full text
    <p>The phylogenetic tree was generated by the NJ method with bootstrap analysis (1000 replicates) from the amino acid sequence alignment of MAPK protiens in <i>Arabidopsis</i>, <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>, rice, <i>Zea mays</i>, and other plants using MEGA 6.0 program. The tree was displayed with FigTree v1.4.0. Bootstrap values of >50% are denoted at the nodes. Plant MAPK proteins in the phylogenetic tree were clustered into four distinct groups (Groups A, B, C, and D). At: <i>A</i>. <i>thaliana</i>; Bra: <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>; Cr: <i>Catharanthus roseus</i>; Gh: <i>G</i>. <i>hirsutum</i>; Md: <i>M</i>. <i>domestica</i>; Nt: <i>N</i>. <i>tabacum</i>; Os: <i>O</i>. <i>sativa</i>; Ps: <i>Pisum sativum</i>; St: <i>Solanum tuberosum</i>; Ta: <i>T</i>. <i>aestivum</i>; Zm: <i>Z</i>. <i>mays</i>.</p

    Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Gene Family in <i>Brassica rapa</i>

    No full text
    <div><p>Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are fundamental signal transduction modules in plants, controlling cell division, development, hormone signaling, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although MAPKs have been investigated in several plant species, a comprehensive analysis of the <i>MAPK</i> gene family has hitherto not been performed in <i>Brassica rapa</i>. In this study, we identified 32 MAPKs in the <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i> genome by conducting BLASTP and syntenic block analyses, and screening for the essential signature motif (TDY or TEY) of plant MAPK proteins. Of the 32 <i>BraMAPK</i> genes retrieved from the <i>Brassica</i> Database, 13 exhibited exon splicing errors, excessive splicing of the 5' sequence, excessive retention of the 5' sequence, and sequencing errors of the 3' end. Phylogenetic trees of the 32 corrected MAPKs from <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i> and of MAPKs from other plants generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods suggested that BraMAPKs could be divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D). Gene number expansion was observed for <i>BraMAPK</i> genes in groups A and D, which may have been caused by the tandem duplication and genome triplication of the ancestral genome of the <i>Brassica</i> progenitor. Except for five members of the <i>BraMAPK10</i> subfamily, the identified <i>BraMAPKs</i> were expressed in most of the tissues examined, including callus, root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that at least six and five <i>BraMAPKs</i> were induced or repressed by various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments, respectively, suggesting their potential roles in the abiotic stress response and various hormone signal transduction pathways in <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>. This study provides valuable insight into the putative physiological and biochemical functions of <i>MAPK</i> genes in <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>.</p></div

    Phylogenetic analysis and gene structure of <i>MAPK</i> genes in <i>Arabidopsis</i> and <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>.

    No full text
    <p>Full-length protein sequences of 20 AtMAPKs, 32 BrMAPKs and AtCKA2 were aligned by using the ClustalW2 program. The phylogenetic tree (left panel) was constructed by using the MEGA 6.0 program and the neighbor-joining method (1000 bootstrap replicates), and displayed using FigTree v1.4.0. Only bootstrap values greater than 50% are denoted at the nodes. The 52 MAPK proteins in <i>A</i>. <i>thaliana</i> and <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i> were clustered into four distinct groups (Groups A, B, C, and D). Gene structure is shown in the right panel. Exons and introns are shown by blue boxes and black horizontal lines, respectively. Introns in phases 0, 1, and 2 are represented by the numbers 0, 1, and 2, respectively. The scale bar represents 1.0 kb. At: <i>A</i>. <i>thaliana</i>; Bra: B. <i>rapa</i>.</p

    Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile <i>Brassica napus</i> Lines

    No full text
    <div><p>The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating <i>B</i>. <i>napus</i> plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.</p></div
    corecore