405 research outputs found

    Electric Field Effect Tuning of Electron-Phonon Coupling in Graphene

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    Gate-modulated low-temperature Raman spectra reveal that the electric field effect (EFE), pervasive in contemporary electronics, has marked impacts on long wavelength optical phonons of graphene. The EFE in this two dimensional honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms creates large density modulations of carriers with linear dispersion (known as Dirac fermions). Our EFE Raman spectra display the interactions of lattice vibrations with these unusual carriers. The changes of phonon frequency and line-width demonstrate optically the particle-hole symmetry about the charge-neutral Dirac-point. The linear dependence of the phonon frequency on the EFE-modulated Fermi energy is explained as the electron-phonon coupling of mass-less Dirac fermions.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Estimating sizes of Type 2 AGN narrow-line regions from multiple survey spectra -- a demonstration

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    In the Letter, an interesting method is proposed to estimate size of narrow emission lines regions (NLRs) of a Type-2 AGN SDSS J083823.91+490241.1 (=SDSS J0838) at a redshift of 0.101, by comparing spectroscopic properties through the SDSS fiber (MJD=51873) (diameter of 3 arcseconds) and through the eBOSS fiber (MJD=55277) (diameter of 2 arcseconds). After subtractions of pPXF method determined host galaxy contributions, the narrow emission lines of SDSS J0838 in the SDSS spectrum and in the eBOSS spectrum can be well measured by Gaussian functions, leading more than 90\% of [O~{\sc iii}] emissions to be covered by the eBOSS fiber with diameter of 2 arcseconds. Meanwhile, both none broad emission components and none-variabilities of ZTF 3years-long g/r-band light curves can be applied to confirm SDSS J0838 as a Type-2 AGN, indicating few orientation effects on the projected NLRs size in SDSS J0838. Therefore, upper limit about 1arcsecond (2250pc) of the NLRs size can be reasonably accepted in SDSS J0838. Combining with the intrinsic reddening corrected [O~{\sc iii}] line luminosity, the upper limit of NLRs size in SDSS J0838 well lies within the 99.9999\% confidence bands of the R-L empirical relation for NLRs in AGN.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, accepted to be published in MNRA

    Fabrication and Electric Field Dependent Transport Measurements of Mesoscopic Graphite Devices

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    We have developed a unique micromechanical method to extract extremely thin graphite samples. Graphite crystallites with thicknesses ranging from 10 - 100 nm and lateral size \sim 2 μ\mum are extracted from bulk. Mesoscopic graphite devices are fabricated from these samples for electric field dependent conductance measurements. Strong conductance modulation as a function of gate voltage is observed in the thinner crystallite devices. The temperature dependent resistivity measurements show more boundary scattering contribution in the thinner graphite samples.Comment: 3 pages, 3 figures included, submitted to Appl. Phys. Let

    Energy Band Gap Engineering of Graphene Nanoribbons

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    We investigate electronic transport in lithographically patterned graphene ribbon structures where the lateral confinement of charge carriers creates an energy gap near the charge neutrality point. Individual graphene layers are contacted with metal electrodes and patterned into ribbons of varying widths and different crystallographic orientations. The temperature dependent conductance measurements show larger energy gaps opening for narrower ribbons. The sizes of these energy gaps are investigated by measuring the conductance in the non-linear response regime at low temperatures. We find that the energy gap scales inversely with the ribbon width, thus demonstrating the ability to engineer the band gap of graphene nanostructures by lithographic processes.Comment: 7 pages including 4 figure

    Effect of Forage Brassica on Subsequent Soil Water Content and Yield of Dual-Purpose Winter Wheat in Rainfed Region of Northwestern China

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    The dual-purpose performance of winter wheat used for both forage and grain production has been explored as an alternative practice for filling the feed gap during winter and spring in agricultural areas of the Loess Plateau. Profit-ability is still restricted however, because of a three month summer fallow period between harvest and planting of the subsequent wheat crop. During this 3 month period 60% of the annual precipitation occurs, limiting the effective use of soil water and compounding the risk of soil erosion. Thus it is important to cultivate some forage crops with higher water consumption, protecting the ecological environment during this period and enlarging the forage resource base through their high forage yield and good quality. A previous study has shown that inclusion of rapeseed into crop rotations could reduce disease in subsequent plantings, leading to an increase in production of the following wheat crop (Brendan and John 2004). Accordingly, dual-purpose winter wheat after forage brassica may be an effective option to meet these requirements. Other studies have shown however, that wheat yield of grazed plots following brassica was reduced by 29% compared with that of grazed plots following fallow, and that average grain yield in grazed plots was reduced by 38% compared with that in ungrazed plots (Kelman and Dove 2007). Additionally, the possibility of severe water stress occurring after forage crop harvest is an important concern. In this study, soil moisture status and forage and grain yield of dual-purpose winter wheat following forage brassica were investigated and compared with those of winter wheat after fallow

    Optimal Mixed-ADC arrangement for DOA Estimation via CRB using ULA

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    We consider a mixed analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based architecture for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation using a uniform linear array (ULA). We derive the Cram{\'e}r-Rao bound (CRB) of the DOA under the optimal time-varying threshold, and find that the asymptotic CRB is related to the arrangement of high-precision and one-bit ADCs for a fixed number of ADCs. Then, a new concept called ``mixed-precision arrangement" is proposed. It is proven that better performance for DOA estimation is achieved when high-precision ADCs are distributed evenly around the edges of the ULA. This result can be extended to a more general case where the ULA is equipped with various precision ADCs. Simulation results show the validity of the asymptotic CRB and better performance under the optimal mixed-precision arrangement.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, accepted by ICASSP202

    Full-range Gate-controlled Terahertz Phase Modulations with Graphene Metasurfaces

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    Local phase control of electromagnetic wave, the basis of a diverse set of applications such as hologram imaging, polarization and wave-front manipulation, is of fundamental importance in photonic research. However, the bulky, passive phase modulators currently available remain a hurdle for photonic integration. Here we demonstrate full-range active phase modulations in the Tera-Hertz (THz) regime, realized by gate-tuned ultra-thin reflective metasurfaces based on graphene. A one-port resonator model, backed by our full-wave simulations, reveals the underlying mechanism of our extreme phase modulations, and points to general strategies for the design of tunable photonic devices. As a particular example, we demonstrate a gate-tunable THz polarization modulator based on our graphene metasurface. Our findings pave the road towards exciting photonic applications based on active phase manipulations

    Flat Chern Band From Twisted Bilayer MnBi2_2Te4_4

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    We construct a continuum model for the Moir\'e superlattice of twisted bilayer MnBi2_2Te4_4, and study the band structure of the bilayer in both ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases. We find the system exhibits highly tunable Chern bands with Chern number up to 33. We show that a twist angle of 11^\circ turns the highest valence band into a flat band with Chern number ±1\pm1 that is isolated from all other bands in both FM and AFM phases. This result provides a promising platform for realizing time-reversal breaking correlated topological phases, such as fractional Chern insulator and p+ipp+ip topological superconductor. In addition, our calculation indicates that the twisted stacking facilitates the emergence of quantum anomalous Hall effect in MnBi2_2Te4_4.Comment: 7+6 pages, 3+2 figure