188 research outputs found

    Relaxed Sparse Eigenvalue Conditions for Sparse Estimation via Non-convex Regularized Regression

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    Non-convex regularizers usually improve the performance of sparse estimation in practice. To prove this fact, we study the conditions of sparse estimations for the sharp concave regularizers which are a general family of non-convex regularizers including many existing regularizers. For the global solutions of the regularized regression, our sparse eigenvalue based conditions are weaker than that of L1-regularization for parameter estimation and sparseness estimation. For the approximate global and approximate stationary (AGAS) solutions, almost the same conditions are also enough. We show that the desired AGAS solutions can be obtained by coordinate descent (CD) based methods. Finally, we perform some experiments to show the performance of CD methods on giving AGAS solutions and the degree of weakness of the estimation conditions required by the sharp concave regularizers

    Multi-Stage Multi-Task Feature Learning

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    Multi-task sparse feature learning aims to improve the generalization performance by exploiting the shared features among tasks. It has been successfully applied to many applications including computer vision and biomedical informatics. Most of the existing multi-task sparse feature learning algorithms are formulated as a convex sparse regularization problem, which is usually suboptimal, due to its looseness for approximating an 0\ell_0-type regularizer. In this paper, we propose a non-convex formulation for multi-task sparse feature learning based on a novel non-convex regularizer. To solve the non-convex optimization problem, we propose a Multi-Stage Multi-Task Feature Learning (MSMTFL) algorithm; we also provide intuitive interpretations, detailed convergence and reproducibility analysis for the proposed algorithm. Moreover, we present a detailed theoretical analysis showing that MSMTFL achieves a better parameter estimation error bound than the convex formulation. Empirical studies on both synthetic and real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of MSMTFL in comparison with the state of the art multi-task sparse feature learning algorithms.Comment: The short version appears in NIPS 201

    Deep Defense: Training DNNs with Improved Adversarial Robustness

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    Despite the efficacy on a variety of computer vision tasks, deep neural networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, limiting their applications in security-critical systems. Recent works have shown the possibility of generating imperceptibly perturbed image inputs (a.k.a., adversarial examples) to fool well-trained DNN classifiers into making arbitrary predictions. To address this problem, we propose a training recipe named "deep defense". Our core idea is to integrate an adversarial perturbation-based regularizer into the classification objective, such that the obtained models learn to resist potential attacks, directly and precisely. The whole optimization problem is solved just like training a recursive network. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms training with adversarial/Parseval regularizations by large margins on various datasets (including MNIST, CIFAR-10 and ImageNet) and different DNN architectures. Code and models for reproducing our results are available at https://github.com/ZiangYan/deepdefense.pytorchComment: Accepted by NeurIPS 201

    Sparse DNNs with Improved Adversarial Robustness

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    Deep neural networks (DNNs) are computationally/memory-intensive and vulnerable to adversarial attacks, making them prohibitive in some real-world applications. By converting dense models into sparse ones, pruning appears to be a promising solution to reducing the computation/memory cost. This paper studies classification models, especially DNN-based ones, to demonstrate that there exists intrinsic relationships between their sparsity and adversarial robustness. Our analyses reveal, both theoretically and empirically, that nonlinear DNN-based classifiers behave differently under l2l_2 attacks from some linear ones. We further demonstrate that an appropriately higher model sparsity implies better robustness of nonlinear DNNs, whereas over-sparsified models can be more difficult to resist adversarial examples.Comment: l1 regularization on weights --> l1 regularization on activation

    Aligning where to see and what to tell: image caption with region-based attention and scene factorization

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    Recent progress on automatic generation of image captions has shown that it is possible to describe the most salient information conveyed by images with accurate and meaningful sentences. In this paper, we propose an image caption system that exploits the parallel structures between images and sentences. In our model, the process of generating the next word, given the previously generated ones, is aligned with the visual perception experience where the attention shifting among the visual regions imposes a thread of visual ordering. This alignment characterizes the flow of "abstract meaning", encoding what is semantically shared by both the visual scene and the text description. Our system also makes another novel modeling contribution by introducing scene-specific contexts that capture higher-level semantic information encoded in an image. The contexts adapt language models for word generation to specific scene types. We benchmark our system and contrast to published results on several popular datasets. We show that using either region-based attention or scene-specific contexts improves systems without those components. Furthermore, combining these two modeling ingredients attains the state-of-the-art performance

    Recent Advances in Large Margin Learning

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    This paper serves as a survey of recent advances in large margin training and its theoretical foundations, mostly for (nonlinear) deep neural networks (DNNs) that are probably the most prominent machine learning models for large-scale data in the community over the past decade. We generalize the formulation of classification margins from classical research to latest DNNs, summarize theoretical connections between the margin, network generalization, and robustness, and introduce recent efforts in enlarging the margins for DNNs comprehensively. Since the viewpoint of different methods is discrepant, we categorize them into groups for ease of comparison and discussion in the paper. Hopefully, our discussions and overview inspire new research work in the community that aim to improve the performance of DNNs, and we also point to directions where the large margin principle can be verified to provide theoretical evidence why certain regularizations for DNNs function well in practice. We managed to shorten the paper such that the crucial spirit of large margin learning and related methods are better emphasized.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figure

    Weakly- and Semi-Supervised Object Detection with Expectation-Maximization Algorithm

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    Object detection when provided image-level labels instead of instance-level labels (i.e., bounding boxes) during training is an important problem in computer vision, since large scale image datasets with instance-level labels are extremely costly to obtain. In this paper, we address this challenging problem by developing an Expectation-Maximization (EM) based object detection method using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method is applicable to both the weakly-supervised and semi-supervised settings. Extensive experiments on PASCAL VOC 2007 benchmark show that (1) in the weakly supervised setting, our method provides significant detection performance improvement over current state-of-the-art methods, (2) having access to a small number of strongly (instance-level) annotated images, our method can almost match the performace of the fully supervised Fast RCNN. We share our source code at https://github.com/ZiangYan/EM-WSD.Comment: 9 page

    A General Iterative Shrinkage and Thresholding Algorithm for Non-convex Regularized Optimization Problems

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    Non-convex sparsity-inducing penalties have recently received considerable attentions in sparse learning. Recent theoretical investigations have demonstrated their superiority over the convex counterparts in several sparse learning settings. However, solving the non-convex optimization problems associated with non-convex penalties remains a big challenge. A commonly used approach is the Multi-Stage (MS) convex relaxation (or DC programming), which relaxes the original non-convex problem to a sequence of convex problems. This approach is usually not very practical for large-scale problems because its computational cost is a multiple of solving a single convex problem. In this paper, we propose a General Iterative Shrinkage and Thresholding (GIST) algorithm to solve the nonconvex optimization problem for a large class of non-convex penalties. The GIST algorithm iteratively solves a proximal operator problem, which in turn has a closed-form solution for many commonly used penalties. At each outer iteration of the algorithm, we use a line search initialized by the Barzilai-Borwein (BB) rule that allows finding an appropriate step size quickly. The paper also presents a detailed convergence analysis of the GIST algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by extensive experiments on large-scale data sets

    Instance-level Semisupervised Multiple Instance Learning

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    Multiple instance learning (MIL) is a branch of machine learning that attempts to learn information from bags of instances. Many real-world applications such as localized content-based image retrieval and text categorization can be viewed as MIL problems. In this paper, we propose a new graph-based semi-supervised learning approach for multiple instance learning. By defining an instance-level graph on the data, we first propose a new approach to construct an optimization framework for multiple instance semi-supervised learning, and derive an efficient way to overcome the non-convexity of MIL. We empirically show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art MIL algorithms on several real-world data sets

    An In-field Automatic Wheat Disease Diagnosis System

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    Crop diseases are responsible for the major production reduction and economic losses in agricultural industry world- wide. Monitoring for health status of crops is critical to control the spread of diseases and implement effective management. This paper presents an in-field automatic wheat disease diagnosis system based on a weakly super- vised deep learning framework, i.e. deep multiple instance learning, which achieves an integration of identification for wheat diseases and localization for disease areas with only image-level annotation for training images in wild conditions. Furthermore, a new in-field image dataset for wheat disease, Wheat Disease Database 2017 (WDD2017), is collected to verify the effectiveness of our system. Under two different architectures, i.e. VGG-FCN-VD16 and VGG-FCN-S, our system achieves the mean recognition accuracies of 97.95% and 95.12% respectively over 5-fold cross-validation on WDD2017, exceeding the results of 93.27% and 73.00% by two conventional CNN frameworks, i.e. VGG-CNN-VD16 and VGG-CNN-S. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system outperforms conventional CNN architectures on recognition accuracy under the same amount of parameters, meanwhile main- taining accurate localization for corresponding disease areas. Moreover, the proposed system has been packed into a real-time mobile app to provide support for agricultural disease diagnosis.Comment: 15 page