18 research outputs found

    Eleven strategies for making reproducible research and open science training the norm at research institutions

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    Across disciplines, researchers increasingly recognize that open science and reproducible research practices may accelerate scientific progress by allowing others to reuse research outputs and by promoting rigorous research that is more likely to yield trustworthy results. While initiatives, training programs, and funder policies encourage researchers to adopt reproducible research and open science practices, these practices are uncommon inmanyfields. Researchers need training to integrate these practicesinto their daily work. We organized a virtual brainstorming event, in collaboration with the German Reproducibility Network, to discuss strategies for making reproducible research and open science training the norm at research institutions. Here, weoutline eleven strategies, concentrated in three areas:(1)offering training, (2)adapting research assessment criteria and program requirements, and (3) building communities. We provide a brief overview of each strategy, offer tips for implementation,and provide links to resources. Our goal is toencourage members of the research community to think creatively about the many ways they can contribute and collaborate to build communities,and make reproducible research and open sciencetraining the norm. Researchers may act in their roles as scientists, supervisors, mentors, instructors, and members of curriculum, hiring or evaluation committees. Institutionalleadership and research administration andsupport staff can accelerate progress by implementing change across their institution

    Eleven strategies for making reproducible research and open science training the norm at research institutions

    Get PDF
    Across disciplines, researchers increasingly recognize that open science and reproducible research practices may accelerate scientific progress by allowing others to reuse research outputs and by promoting rigorous research that is more likely to yield trustworthy results. While initiatives, training programs, and funder policies encourage researchers to adopt reproducible research and open science practices, these practices are uncommon inmanyfields. Researchers need training to integrate these practicesinto their daily work. We organized a virtual brainstorming event, in collaboration with the German Reproducibility Network, to discuss strategies for making reproducible research and open science training the norm at research institutions. Here, weoutline eleven strategies, concentrated in three areas:(1)offering training, (2)adapting research assessment criteria and program requirements, and (3) building communities. We provide a brief overview of each strategy, offer tips for implementation,and provide links to resources. Our goal is toencourage members of the research community to think creatively about the many ways they can contribute and collaborate to build communities,and make reproducible research and open sciencetraining the norm. Researchers may act in their roles as scientists, supervisors, mentors, instructors, and members of curriculum, hiring or evaluation committees. Institutionalleadership and research administration andsupport staff can accelerate progress by implementing change across their institution

    Need for Cognition and Well-Being

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    Need for Cognition is a personality trait that describes an individual‚Äôs inclination to seek out and enjoy cognitive effort. This disposition has been of interest to psychological research for multiple decades now, and findings show that it is related to more engagement in learning, higher self-efficacy, and higher academic achievements. However, it has long been established that effort is something that is generally avoided, so the individuals and scenarios which deviate from this general rule are of great interest to behavioural science. Finding out why effort is sought out, in which ways it is perceived differently, whether this is context-dependent, and what kind of consequences this has for everyday life‚ÄĒall these aspects are necessary to better understand individual differences in cognitive effort preference. This understanding has important implications for theoretical and practical applications, ranging from educational strategies and workplace dynamics to health interventions. Such interventions could maintain or increase well-being, a concept that encompasses several dimensions, including hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Hedonic well-being refers to the pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain, while eudaimonic well-being centres on the pursuit of meaning, personal growth, and self-fulfilment, which requires more effort. As an investment trait, it is therefore likely that Need for Cognition is related to the kind of activities that individuals engage in to increase their well-being. The goal of this thesis is to examine the role of Need for Cognition in well-being, to shed light on the specific relationship between these two constructs and the factors and mechanisms that might be involved in it. In Study 1, we reviewed over 140 studies on the association of Need for Cognition and various aspects of well-being, combining a qualitative literature review with nine meta-analyses. The meta-analyses yielded small to medium effects, showing that higher Need for Cognition was associated with reduced neuroticism, depression, anxiety, burnout, negative affect, and public self-consciousness, and increased positive affect, satisfaction, and private self-consciousness. Higher Need for Cognition fostered active, interest-driven behaviours, which enhanced knowledge acquisition, self-efficacy, and thereby self-confidence in dealing with academic, personal, and interpersonal challenges. However, under some circumstances, the impact of Need for Cognition on well-being appeared to be dependent on third variables such as self-control or the social environment. In other situations, Need for Cognition was associated with lower well-being, suggesting the possibility of a sense of overconfidence in one‚Äôs abilities and resources which leads to more noxious behaviours. This possibility of an overestimation of one‚Äôs own resources depending on Need for Cognition was further explored with preregistered analyses in Study 2 using questionnaire data from 180 teachers from the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic. We first replicated an analysis of possible mediators between Need for Cognition and a reduced sense of personal efficacy, an aspect of burnout. Neither self-control, nor habitual use of reappraisal or suppression as an emotion regulation strategy reached significance as a mediator, which was not in line with the findings of Grass et al. (2018) in teacher trainees. When including the years of teaching experience in the model, self-control mediated between Need for Cognition and the sense of personal efficacy, suggesting that the mechanisms that in- or decrease a teacher‚Äôs burnout risk depend on the career stage. In a structural equation model we then found that teachers with higher Need for Cognition had lower burnout scores because they perceived their own resources as more fitting to their job‚Äôs demands and felt less overwhelmed by these demands, while the opposite pattern was associated with higher burnout scores. A sense of boredom in the form of one‚Äôs resources exceeding the demands was neither related to Need for Cognition nor to burnout scores. The perception of demands and resources fully mediated between Need for Cognition and burnout, indicating that dispositional cognitive effort investment has important protective effects for one‚Äôs sense of self-efficacy, but bears the risk of overestimating oneself nonetheless. In Study 3 we applied these practical insights to foundational research in a Registered Report, examining how Need for Cognition affects effort discounting behaviour. We adapted an existing effort discounting paradigm by Westbrook et al. (2013) to enable the computation of subjective values for different task levels without resorting to the objective effort for reference. Online questionnaires, an inlab working memory task with four difficulty levels, and the adapted paradigm were completed by 116 university students. We found that over a third of participants preferred a more difficult level over the easiest one, and that participants with higher Need for Cognition valued the most difficult level higher and the easiest level lower than participants with lower Need for Cognition did. The difficulty level itself and the accuracy of responses during the working memory task predicted the subjective values of the levels, while reaction time did not, a pattern that stayed consistent across 63 different data processing pipelines. An exploratory analysis showed that even though participants with higher Need for Cognition valued difficult levels higher and found them less aversive, there were no differences in subjective effort, reaction time, or accuracy compared to participants with low Need for Cognition, which further supported the possibility of overestimation. In conclusion, the findings of this thesis have advanced our understanding of the role of Need for Cognition in well-being. One of the main findings is the overestimation of one‚Äôs own resources in individuals with high Need for Cognition, which is facilitated by an increased level of self-control and self-efficacy beliefs. This self-perception is evident both in the workplace and in a basic research paradigm. It can be assumed that the inflated perception of own resources results from differences in the type of task engagement between individuals with higher and lower Need for Cognition. Those with higher Need for Cognition engage more frequently in actual tasks, which result in an increase in resources through skills and experience. More importantly, they engage much more frequently in hypothetical tasks, which result in a perceived increase in resources even though no actual skills were tested and no actual experience was gained. This task engagement pattern promotes a heightened but less accurate sense of self-efficacy in individuals with higher Need for Cognition. In the long term, this overestimation can have a negative impact on well-being but is offset by the predominantly positive associations of Need for Cognition with various aspects of well-being. Further research can now address the question of what influences this overestimation and how it can potentially be mitigated to derive implications for theory and practice. The data and analysis code from all three studies are openly available so that others can reproduce the results, explore patterns, or test new hypotheses

    Mediators of NFC and Burnout - Replication and extension

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    This project aims to replicate findings by Grass et al. (2018) on mdiators of the relation between NFC and the burnout subscale reduced personal efficacy. We further want to extend this approach by introducing different ratios of demands and resources as mediators. Cross-sectional questionnaire data of teachers has already been collected as part of a thesis with different hypotheses

    The role of Need for Cognition in well-being ‚Äď Review and meta-analyses of associations and potentially underlying mechanisms

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    Need for Cognition (NFC) describes one’s inclination towards and enjoyment of effortful cognitive activities and has been associated with favourable academic outcomes. Yet, recent evidence also points to beneficial outcomes regarding well-being. This review gives an overview of the literature on the role of NFC in well-being in healthy adults by combining random-effects meta-analyses and a qualitative integration of evidence. Studies investigating NFC and facets of well-being were acquired via database searches and a call for unpublished results. Higher NFC was found to be associated with lower neuroticism, anxiety, negative affect, burnout, public self-consciousness, and depression and with higher positive affect, private self-consciousness, and satisfaction (|| ~ .20 with 95% confidence intervals excluding zero for all examined outcomes). While tests for publication and selection bias in the meta-analyses were negative, heterogeneity was often observed. NFC was further associated with aspects of a more stable identity and higher social confidence, while associations with addictive behaviours and physical health were inconsistent. One mechanism driving these patterns seems to be a higher perceived control in individuals with higher NFC that increases active coping, but also reduces the effectiveness of health interventions by fostering a sense of overconfidence in own resources. Thus, this review provides a leverage point for future research on NFC and well-being to improve prevention and intervention

    Effects of emotion regulation on EEG microstates ‚Äď Valence and arousal are not processed sequentially

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    In electroencephalography (EEG), microstates are distributions of activity across the scalp that persist for several tens of milliseconds before changing into a different topographical pattern. Microstate analysis is a promising way of utilizing EEG as both temporal and spatial imaging tool, but has mostly been applied to resting state data. This study aimed to conceptually replicate microstate findings of valence and arousal processing and to investigate the effects of emotion regulation on microstates, using existing data of an EEG paradigm with 107 healthy adults who were to actively view emotional pictures, cognitively detach from them, or suppress facial reactions. EEG data were clustered into microstates based on topographical similarity and compared on global and electrode level between conditions of interest. Within the first 600 ms after stimulus onset only the comparison of viewing positive and negative pictures yielded significant global results, caused by different electrodes depending on the microstate. Since the microstates associated with more and less arousing pictures did not differ from each other, sequential processing of valence and arousal information could not be replicated. When extending the analysis to 2,000 ms after stimulus onset, global microstate differences were exclusive to the comparison of viewing and detaching from negative pictures. Intriguingly, we observed the novel phenomenon of a significant global difference that could not be attributed to single electrodes on the local level. This suggests that microstate analysis can detect differences beyond those detected by event-related potential analysis, simply by not confining the analysis to a few electrodes

    Need for cognition and burnout in teachers ‚Äď A replication and extension study

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    Burnout has become more prevalent, mainly in social jobs, and there is evidence that certain personality traits protect against burnout. Only recently, studies have focused on investment traits like Need for Cognition (NFC), the stable intrinsic motivation to seek out and enjoy effortful cognitive activities. This study had three aims: First, the replication of findings by Grass et al. (2018), who investigated NFC and the burnout subscale reduced personal efficacy in student teachers, in a sample of 180 teachers. Second, investigating the role of perceived demands and resources in the context of NFC and burnout. And finally, creating an exploratory model for further research. The results indicated that unlike the student sample, the teachers’ association of NFC and reduced personal efficacy was mediated by self-control but not reappraisal. Teachers with higher NFC and self-control also had lower burnout because they experienced their resources as fitting to the demands

    Estimating individual subjective values of emotion regulation strategies

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    Abstract Individuals have a repertoire of emotion regulation (ER) strategies at their disposal, which they can use more or less flexibly. In ER flexibility research, strategies that facilitate goal achievement are considered adaptive and therefore are subjectively valuable. Individuals are motivated to reduce their emotional arousal effectively and to avoid cognitive effort. Perceived costs of ER strategies in the form of effort, however, are highly subjective. Subjective values (SVs) should therefore represent a trade-off between effectiveness and subjectively required cognitive effort. However, SVs of ER strategies have not been determined so far. We present a new paradigm for quantifying individual SVs of ER strategies by offering monetary values for ER strategies in an iterative process. N = 120 participants first conducted an ER paradigm with the strategies distraction, distancing, and suppression. Afterwards, individual SVs were determined using the new CAD paradigm. SVs significantly predicted later choice for an ER strategy (Ōá2 (4, n = 119) = 115.40, p < 0.001, BF10 = 1.62 √ó 1021). Further, SVs were associated with Corrugator activity (t (5, 618.96) = 2.09, p = 0.037, f 2 = 0.001), subjective effort (t (5, 618.96) = ‚ąí¬†13.98, p < 0.001, f 2 = 0.035), and self-reported utility (t (5, 618.96) = 29.49, p < 0.001, f 2 = 0.155). SVs were further associated with self-control (t (97.97) = 2.04, p = 0.044, f 2 = 0.002), but not with flexible ER. With our paradigm, we were able to determine subjective values. The trait character of the values will be discussed. Protocol registration The stage 1 protocol for this Registered Report was accepted in principle on July 19, 2022. The protocol, as accepted by the journal, can be found at: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/FN9BT

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