452 research outputs found

    Cornering pseudoscalar-mediated dark matter with the LHC and cosmology

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    Models in which dark matter particles communicate with the visible sector through a pseudoscalar mediator are well-motivated both from a theoretical and from a phenomenological standpoint. With direct detection bounds being typically subleading in such scenarios, the main constraints stem either from collider searches for dark matter, or from indirect detection experiments. However., LHC searches for the mediator particles themselves can not only compete with — or even supersede — the reach of direct collider dark matter probes, but they can also test scenarios in which traditional monojet searches become irrelevant, especially when the mediator cannot decay on-shell into dark matter particles or its decay is suppressed. In this work we perform a detailed analysis of a pseudoscalar-mediated dark matter simplified model, taking into account a large set of collider constraints and concentrating on the parameter space regions favoured by cos-mological and astrophysical data. We find that mediator masses above 100-200 GeV are essentially excluded by LHC searches in the case of large couplings to the top quark, while forthcoming collider and astrophysical measurements will further constrain the available parameter space

    Search for neutrinos in coincidence with gravitational wave events from the LIGO–Virgo O3a observing run with the Super-Kamiokande detector

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    ArtĂ­culo escrito por un elevado nĂșmero de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboraciĂłn, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UA

    Jet tagging made easy

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    We develop taggers for multi-pronged jets that are simple functions of jet substructure (so-called `subjettiness') variables. These taggers can be approximately decorrelated from the jet mass in a quite simple way. Specifically, we use a Logistic Regression Design (LoRD) which, even being one of the simplest machine learning classifiers, shows a performance which surpasses that of simple variables used by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations and is not far from more complex models based on neural networks. Contrary to the latter, our method allows for an easy implementation of tagging tasks by providing a simple and interpretable analytical formula with already optimised parameters.Comment: LaTeX 28 pages, four extra appendices. Final version in EPJC. Source code available at https://github.com/bzaldivarm/LoR

    Probing dark matter freeze-in with long-lived particle signatures: MATHUSLA, HL-LHC and FCC-hh

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    Collider searches for long-lived particles yield a promising avenue to probe the freeze-in production of Dark Matter via the decay of a parent particle. We analyze the prospects of probing the parameter space of Dark Matter freeze-in from the decay of neutral parent particles at the LHC and beyond, taking as a case study a freeze-in Dark Matter scenario via the Standard Model Higgs. We obtain the projected sensitivity of the proposed MATHUSLA surface detector (for MATHUSLA100 and MATHUSLA200 configurations) for long-lived particle searches to the freeze-in Dark Matter parameter space, and study its complementarity to searches by ATLAS and CMS at HL-LHC, as well as the interplay with constraints from Cosmology: Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and Lyman-α forest observations. We then analyze the improvement in sensitivity that would come from a forward detector within a future 100 TeV pp-collider. In addition, we discuss several technical aspects of the present Dark Matter freeze-in scenario: the role of the electroweak phase transition; the inclusion of thermal masses, which have been previously disregarded in freeze-in from decay studies; the impact of 2 → 2 scattering processes on the Dark Matter relic abundance; and the interplay between freeze-in and super-WIMP Dark Matter production mechanismsJ.M.N. is supported by the Programa AtracciĂłn de Talento de la Comunidad de Madrid via grant 2017-T1/TIC-5202. B.Z. acknowledges support from the Programa AtracciĂłn de Talento de la Comunidad de Madrid under grant n. 2017-T2/TIC-5455. P.T. acknowledges support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through the Emmy Noether Grant No. KA 4662/1-1 and the Collaborative Research Center TRR 257 “Particle Physics Phenomenology after the Higgs Discovery”. J.M.N. and B.Z. acknowledge support from the Spanish MINECO’s “Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa” Programme via grant SEV-2016-0597. J.M.N. and P.T. were supported by the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 program, ERC Grant Agreement 648680 (DARKHORIZONS

    Self-assembly of model short triblock amphiphiles in dilute solution

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    In this work, a molecular theory is used to study the self-assembly of short diblock and triblock amphiphiles, with head-tail and head-linker-tail structures, respectively. The theory was used to systematically explore the effects of the molecular architecture and the affinity of the solvent for the linker and tail blocks on the relative stability of the different nanostructures formed by the amphiphiles in dilute solution, which include spherical micelles, cylindrical fibers and planar lamellas. Moreover, the theory predicts that each of these nanostructures can adopt two different types of internal organization: (i) normal nanostructures with a core composed of tail segments and a corona composed of head segments, and (ii) nanostructures with a core formed by linker segments and a corona formed by tail and head segments. The theory predicts the occurrence of a transition from micelle to fiber to lamella when increasing the length of the tail or the linker blocks, which is in qualitative agreement with the geometric packing theory and with experiments in the literature. The theory also predicts a transition from micelle to fiber to lamella as the affinity of the solvent for the tail or linker block is decreased. This result is also in qualitative agreement with experiments in the literature but cannot be explained in terms of the geometric packing theory. The molecular theory provides an explanation for this result in terms of the competition between solvophobic attractions among segments in the core and steric repulsions between segments in the corona for the different types of self-assembled nanostructures.Fil: Zaldivar, Gervasio. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Oficina de CoordinaciĂłn Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de QuĂ­mica, FĂ­sica de los Materiales, Medioambiente y EnergĂ­a. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de QuĂ­mica, FĂ­sica de los Materiales, Medioambiente y EnergĂ­a; ArgentinaFil: Samad, M. B.. University of Nebraska; Estados UnidosFil: Conda Sheridan, Martin. University of Nebraska; Estados UnidosFil: Tagliazucchi, Mario Eugenio. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Oficina de CoordinaciĂłn Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de QuĂ­mica, FĂ­sica de los Materiales, Medioambiente y EnergĂ­a. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Instituto de QuĂ­mica, FĂ­sica de los Materiales, Medioambiente y EnergĂ­a; Argentin

    Search for solar electron anti-neutrinos due to spin-flavor precession in the Sun with Super-Kamiokande-IV

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    ArtĂ­culo escrito por un elevado nĂșmero de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboraciĂłn, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UAMDue to a very low production rate of electron anti-neutrinos ( -v e) via nuclear fusion in the Sun, a flux of solar -v e is unexpected. An appearance of -v e in solar neutrino flux opens a new window for the new physics beyond the standard model. In particular, a spin-flavor precession process is expected to convert an electron neutrino into an electron anti-neutrino (ve → ̄ve) when neutrino has a finite magnetic moment. In this work, we have searched for solar v e in the Super-Kamiokande experiment, using neutron tagging to identify their inverse beta decay signature. We identified 78 v e candidates for neutrino energies of 9.3 to 17.3 MeV in 2970.1 live days with a fiducial volume of 22.5 kiloton water (183.0 kton⋅year exposure). The energy spectrum has been consistent with background predictions and we thus derived a 90% confidence level upper limit of 4.7×10−4 on the ve -> -v e conversion probability in the Sun. We used this result to evaluate the sensitivity of future experiments, notably the Super-Kamiokande Gadolinium (SK-Gd) upgrad

    Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) as a predictor of prolonged urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy

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    Objectives: To investigate monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) as a novel urinary biomarker to predict prolonged post prostatectomy incontinence. Methods: Men submitted urine samples prior to robotic radical prostatectomy. MCP-1 values were derived using an ELISA test. Pad usage at 7, 30, and 60 days were documented by patient post cards mailed when zero pads was reached. The primary outcome was defined as no incontinence pad usage at 30 days at prostatectomy. Results: After exclusions, 76 patients were included in analyses. Continence was reached by 29% (22/76), 56% (42/76), and (75/76) 98% at 7, 30, and 60 days, respectively. The average MCP-1 (p=0.258) was not different between the continent and incontinent groups. Highest quartile of MCP-1 (MCP > 166 pg/mL) and normalized MCP-1 (MCP-1/TV >0.53) noted a significant delay in continence at 30 days (p=0.050 and p=0.003). Only 26% (5/19) in the highest MCP1/TV quartile were continent, whereas 65% (37/57) of men in the 3 lower quartiles reached zero pad continence (p=0.003). In a logistic regression model the highest quartile of MCP1/TV had a significant chance of being incontinent at 30 days (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.058-0.80; p=0.022). Conclusion: MCP-1/TV is a urinary biomarker that may predict prolonged urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy

    Paleomagnetism from Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctica), new insights into the interpretation of the volcanic evolution using a geomagnetic model

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    Deception Island shows the most recent exposed active volcanism in the northern boundary of the Bransfield Trough. The succession of the volcanic sequence in the island is broadly divided into pre- and post-caldera collapse units although a well-constrained chronological identification of the well-defined successive volcanic episodes is still needed. A new paleomagnetic investigation was carried out on 157 samples grouped in 20 sites from the volcanic deposits of Deception Island (South Shetlands archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula region) distributed in: (1) volcanic breccia (3 sites) and lavas (2 sites) prior to the caldera collapse; (2) lavas emplaced after the caldera collapse (10 sites); and (3) dikes cutting pre- and the lower- most post-caldera collapse units (5 sites). The information revealed by paleomagnetism provides new data about the evolution of the multi-episodic volcanic edifice of this Quaternary volcano, suggesting that the present-day position of the volcanic materials is close to their original emplace- ment position. The new data have been combined with previous paleomagnetic results in order to tentatively propose an age when comparing the paleomagnetic data with a global geomagnetic model. Despite the uncertainties in the use of averaged paleomagnetic data per volcanic units, the new data in combination with tephra occurrences noted elsewhere in the region suggest that the pre-caldera units (F1 and F2) erupted before 12,000 year BC, the caldera collapse took place at about 8300 year BC, and post-cal- dera units S1 and S2 are younger than 2000 year BC

    Challenges in context-aware mobile language learning: the MASELTOV approach

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    Smartphones, as highly portable networked computing devices with embedded sensors including GPS receivers, are ideal platforms to support context-aware language learning. They can enable learning when the user is en-gaged in everyday activities while out and about, complementing formal language classes. A significant challenge, however, has been the practical implementation of services that can accurately identify and make use of context, particularly location, to offer meaningful language learning recommendations to users. In this paper we review a range of approaches to identifying context to support mobile language learning. We consider how dynamically changing aspects of context may influence the quality of recommendations presented to a user. We introduce the MASELTOV project’s use of context awareness combined with a rules-based recommendation engine to present suitable learning content to recent immigrants in urban areas; a group that may benefit from contextual support and can use the city as a learning environment