5 research outputs found

    Fabrication and characterization of pandanus amaryllifolius fibre reinforced thermoplastic cassava starch beeswax composites

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    Starch is commonly used in order to substitute the usage of petroleum-based plastic for production of green and eco-friendly products. Cassava starch is the most abundantly found and could be a promising biopolymer matrix candidate. However, starch-based plastic possesses low mechanical properties and high-water affinity that limits its application. Hence, blending starch matrix with hydrophobic material such as beeswax could aid in providing excellent water barrier properties. Nevertheless, the blending method of thermoplastic cassava starch and beeswax (TPCS/BW) is insufficient to provide a good characteristic for biocomposite application due to the poor mechanical properties. Thus, reinforcement with natural fibre could be the best alternative. Pandanus amaryllifolius fibre (PAF), also known as pandan wangi is a tropical plant in Malaysia that is widely used for flavouring cuisines. Usually, the used Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves will be discarded as waste. Hence, characterization on the Pandanus amaryllifolius fibre (PAF) were carried out to examine its potential as reinforcement agent in starch matrix. Thermoplastic cassava starch/beeswax blends at 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 wt.% beeswax loading were successfully developed via the hot molding compression method. The finding shows physical properties especially in terms of water barrier were improved following the incorporation of beeswax. Even though the addition of beeswax has reduced the tensile strength, elongation and flexural strength but it is proved that tensile and flexural modulus showed significant improvement until 5 wt.% of beeswax loading. Furthermore, the incorporation of beeswax has shown the occurance of intermolecular interaction, improved thermal stability and shows the appearance of irregular and rough fractured surfaces via analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and morphological surface analysis, respectively. Crystallinity value is dropped as beeswax is added. Besides that, chemical composition analysis has revealed PAF’s cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content of 48.79%, 19.95% and 18.64% respectively. Analysis from FTIR and x-ray diffraction analysis confirms the presence of cellulose and amorphous substances in the fibre which is proven by morphology studies. Mechanical properties, moisture absorption rate and thermal stability temperature were found at 45.61±16.09 MPa, 6.00% and 210℃ respectively at diameter fibre diameter of 368.57±50.4

    Extraction and characterization of natural cellulosic fiber from Pandanus Amaryllifolius leaves

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    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a member of Pandanaceae family and is abundant in south-east Asian countries including Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and India. In this study, Pandanus amaryllifolius fibres were extracted via a water retting extraction process and were investigated as potential fibre reinforcement in polymer composite. Several tests were carried out to investigate the characterization of Pandanus amaryllifolius fibre such as chemical composition analysis which revealed Pandanus amaryllifolius fibre’s cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content of 48.79%, 19.95% and 18.64% respectively. Material functional groups were analysed by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirming the presence of cellulose and amorphous substances in the fibre. The morphology of extracted Pandanus amaryllifolius fibre was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Further mechanical behaviour of fibre was investigated using a single fibre test with 5 kN cell load and tensile strength was found to be 45.61 ± 16.09 MPa for an average fibre diameter of 368.57 ± 50.47 µm. Meanwhile, moisture content analysis indicated a 6.00% moisture absorption rate of Pandanus amaryllifolius fibre. The thermogravimetric analysis justified the thermal stability of Pandanus amaryllifolius fibre up to 210◦C, which is within polymerization process temperature conditions. Overall, the finding shows that Pandanus amaryllifolius fibre may be used as alternative reinforcement particularly for a bio-based polymer matrix

    Physical Properties Of Thermoplastic Starch Derived From Natural Resources And Its Blends: A Review

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    Thermoplastic starch composites have attracted significant attention due to the rise of environmental pollutions induced by the use of synthetic petroleum-based polymer materials. The degradation of traditional plastics requires an unusually long time, which may lead to high cost and secondary pollution. To solve these difficulties, more petroleum-based plastics should be substituted with sustainable bio-based plastics. Renewable and natural materials that are abundant in nature are potential candidates for a wide range of polymers, which can be used to replace their synthetic counterparts. This paper focuses on some aspects of biopolymers and their classes, providing a description of starch as a main component of biopolymers, composites, and potential applications of thermoplastics starch-based in packaging application. Currently, biopolymer composites blended with other components have exhibited several enhanced qualities. The same behavior is also observed when natural fibre is incorporated with biopolymers. However, it should be noted that the degree of compatibility between starch and other biopolymers extensively varies depending on the specific biopolymer. Although their efficacy is yet to reach the level of their fossil fuel counterparts, biopolymers have made a distinguishing mark, which will continue to inspire the creation of novel substances for many years to com


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    Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre (PAF) is an agricultural waste plant derived from the natural cellulosic source of fbre that can be used in various bio-material applications. In the present study, a novel biodegradable thermoplastic cassava starch/beeswax blends reinforced with Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre (TCPS/BW/PAF) bio-composites were successfully developed at varied Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 wt% while beeswax loading was remained constant at 2.5 wt% concentration using hot moulding compression method. A comprehensive characterisation of TCPS/ BW/PAF bio-composites was examined in terms of their physical, mechanical, thermal and biodegradation properties. The addition of Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre has signifcantly improved tensile strength and tensile modulus at maximum value obtained 10.9 and 606.5 MPa, respectively as well as fexural strength and fexural modulus of bio-composite at maximum value obtained 21.37 and 523.76 MPa, respectively until 50 wt% Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre loading. Surface morphology of the fractured tensile samples PAF10 to PAF50 shows compacted structure and fbre breakage, indicating efective stress transfer from starch matrix to PAF during tensile force application. Furthermore, the addition of Pandanus amaryllifolius fbre improved thermal stability from TG, DTG and DSC results; improved crystallinity from XRD analysis; reduced water and moisture afnity from physical properties testing, and lowered the biodegradation rate. Overall, this study shows the potential of TCPS/BW/PAF bio-composites in biopolymer application and bio-packaging industries