43,744 research outputs found

    Synthetic horizontal branch morphology for different metallicities and ages under tidally enhanced stellar wind

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    It is believed that, except for metallicity, some other parameters are needed to explain the horizontal branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters (GCs). Furthermore, these parameters are considered to be correlated with the mass loss of the red giant branch (RGB) stars. In our previous work, we proposed that tidally enhanced stellar wind during binary evolution may affect the HB morphology by enhancing the mass loss of the red giant primary. As a further study, we now investigate the effects of metallicity and age on HB morphology by considering tidally enhanced stellar winds during binary evolution. We incorporated the tidally enhanced-stellar-wind model into Eggleton's stellar evolution code to study the binary evolution. To study the effects of metallicity and age on our final results, we conducted two sets of model calculations: (i) for a fixed age, we used three metallicities, namely Z=0.0001, 0.001, and 0.02. (ii) For a fixed metallicity, Z=0.001, we used five ages in our model calculations: 14, 13, 12, 10, and 7 Gyr. We found that HB morphology of GCs becomes bluer with decreasing metallicity, and old GCs present bluer HB morphology than young ones. These results are consistent with previous work. Although the envelope-mass distributions of zero-age HB stars produced by tidally enhanced stellar wind are similar for different metallicities, the synthetic HB under tidally enhanced stellar wind for Z=0.02 presented a distinct gap between red and blue HB. However, this feature was not seen clearly in the synthetic HB for Z=0.001 and 0.0001. We also found that higher binary fractions may make HB morphology become bluer, and we discussed the results with recent observations.Comment: 16 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Evolution of binary stars and its implications for evolutionary population synthesis

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    Most stars are members of binaries, and the evolution of a star in a close binary system differs from that of an ioslated star due to the proximity of its companion star. The components in a binary system interact in many ways and binary evolution leads to the formation of many peculiar stars, including blue stragglers and hot subdwarfs. We will discuss binary evolution and the formation of blue stragglers and hot subdwarfs, and show that those hot objects are important in the study of evolutionary population synthesis (EPS), and conclude that binary interactions should be included in the study of EPS. Indeed, binary interactions make a stellar population younger (hotter), and the far-ultraviolet (UV) excess in elliptical galaxies is shown to be most likely resulted from binary interactions. This has major implications for understanding the evolution of the far-UV excess and elliptical galaxies in general. In particular, it implies that the far-UV excess is not a sign of age, as had been postulated prviously and predicts that it should not be strongly dependent on the metallicity of the population, but exists universally from dwarf ellipticals to giant ellipticals.Comment: Oral talk on IAUS 262, Brazi

    Binary Stellar Population Synthesis Model

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    Using Yunnan evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) models, we present integrated colours, integrated spectral energy distributions (ISEDs) and absorption-line indices defined by the Lick Observatory image dissector scanner (Lick/IDS) system, for an extensive set of instantaneous-burst binary stellar populations (BSPs) with interactions. By comparing the results for populations with and without interactions we show that the inclusion of binary interactions makes the appearance of the population substantially bluer. This effect raises the derived age and metallicity of the population. To be used in the studies of modern spectroscopic galaxy surveys at intermediate/high spectral resolution, we also present intermediate- (3A) and high-resolution (~0.3A) ISEDs and Lick/IDS absorption-line indices for BSPs. To directly compare with observations the Lick/IDS absorption indices are also presented by measuring them directly from the ISEDs.Comment: 2 pages 2 figure

    Cataclysmic Variables with Evolved Secondaries and the Progenitors of AM CVn Stars

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    We present the results of a systematic study of cataclysmic variables (CVs) and related systems, combining detailed binary-population synthesis (BPS) models with a grid of 120 binary evolution sequences calculated with a Henyey-type stellar evolution code. In these sequences, we used 3 masses for the white dwarf (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 Msun) and seven masses for the donor star in the range of 0.6-1.4 Msun. The shortest orbital periods were chosen to have initially unevolved secondaries, and the longest orbital period for each secondary mass was taken to be just longer than the bifurcation period (16 - 22 hr), beyond which systems evolve towards long orbital periods. These calculations show that systems which start with evolved secondaries near the end or just after their main-sequence phase become ultra-compact systems with periods as short as 7 min. These systems are excellent candidates for AM CVn stars. Using a standard BPS code, we show how the properties of CVs at the beginning of mass transfer depend on the efficiency for common-envelope (CE) ejection and the efficiency of magnetic braking. In our standard model, where CE ejection is efficient, some 10 per cent of all CVs have initially evolved secondaries (with a central hydrogen abundance X_c < 0.4) and ultimately become ultra-compact systems (implying a Galactic birthrate for AM CVn-like stars of 10^{-3} yr^{-1}). Almost all CVs with orbital periods longer than 5 hr are found to have initially evolved or relatively massive secondaries. We show that their distribution of effective temperatures is in good agreement with the distribution of spectral types obtained by Beuermann et al. (1998).Comment: 16 pages, 6 figures (Fig. 4 in reduced format). Submitted to MNRA

    Atrocalopteryx melli orohainani ssp. nov. on the Island of Hainan, China (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae)

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    The new sp. is described from the mountain core of Hainan, southern China, where it usually occurs at altitudes not lower than 300 m asl. It lives on the same type of small, shaded rivers as the nominate ssp. on the continent, and is distinguished by its larger size, slightly less enfumed wings, and a 2.6% difference in the sequence of the barcoding portion of the mitochodrial DNA-cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Holotype male: Diaoluoshan mountain, 6-VIII-2011; deposited in the Inst. Hydrobiol., Jinan Univ., Guanghou. It is argued that this geographically defined ssp. evolved because of persistent poor gene flow with continental populations, caused by the lowland "panhandle" between Hainan and the continent. This barrier was probably functioning equally well during interglacials (like at present) as during pleniglacials (when Hainan was connected to the mainland), because lack of suitable environments (small sized running waters), and dry and cold conditions continued to limit the contact with A. melli of the mainland
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